Suggested menu for Serf ‘n’ Turf III
Research by THL Katja Davidova Orlova
Bread with Butter
Onion Soup or Squash Soup
Cheese/Onion Quiche or Herb/Cheese Ravioli
Beef Stew or Beef Rolls
Rice or Sage & Herb Stuffing
Poached Haddock with Green-Garlic Sauce
Broccoli, Peas, Chickpeas, or Apples & Raisins
Custard or Pears in Wine Syrup
Thomas Austin, Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery-Books, 2000. (Contains recipes from the Harleian MS. 279 & Harl. MS. 4016, with extracts from Ashmole MS. 1429, Laud MS. 553, & Douce MS 55.)
– Redactions taken from online version ofCariadoc's Miscellany, by David Friedman and Elizabeth Cook, 1992.
Hieatt, Constance B., An Ordinance of Pottage: An Edition of the Fifteenth Century Culinary Recipes in Yale University’s MS Beinecke 163, 1988.
Hieatt, Constance B. and Sharon Butler, Pleyn Delit: Medieval Cookery for Modern Cooks, 1997. (Contains redactions of The Forme of Cury.)
Renfrow, Cindy, Take a Thousand Eggs or More; A Collection of 15th Century Recipes, 1993. (Contains redactions of recipes from the Harleian MS. 279 & Harl. MS. 4016, with extracts from Ashmole MS. 1429, Laud MS. 553, & Douce MS 55.)
Bastons, Ordinance of Pottage
Make a stiff batture of yolkes of eyron, and paryed flour, & sigure, a grete dele, & a lytle yest of new ale. set hit by the fyre, or els in a pot boylyng, that hit may take a lytyl hete. When hit is rysyd, sweyng hit well togedyr that hit fall doun ayene. Loke thy oven be hote, & clene swepyd; poure hit on the floure of the oven & bake hit as french bred. Than take hit out; cut awey the crustys obovyn the bred of a nobyll & make a hole, & reys hit al abovyn the undyr the crust endlyng and ovyrtuyarte as thyke as thu amy with a knyf,& so do even to the boysome, bur safe the boysome hole, & the crust al aboute; & fil hit full of clarifyed hony, & set on the crust ayen & set hym on the ovyn. When they be somdell dried, serve hit forth.
Salat, Forme of Cury
Take persel, sawge, grene garlec, chibolles, letys, leek, spinoches, borage, myntes, prymos, violettes, porrettes, fenel, and toun cressis, rew, rosemarye, purslarye; laue and waishe hem clene. Pike hem. Pluk hem small wiþ þyn honde, and myng hem wel with rawe oile; lay on vyneger and salt, and serue it forth.
Parsley, Sage, Scallions, Mint, Rosemary
Rinse and dry herbs thoroughly. Tear into small pieces, mix them well, toss with oil, vinegar, and salt.
Oyle soppes, Harleian MS
Take a good quantite of onyons, and myce hem, noyt to smale, & seth hem in faire water, And take hem vppe; and then take a good quantite of stale ale, as .iij. galons, And there-to take a pynte of goode oyle that is fraied, and cast the onyons there-to, And lete al boyle togidre a grete wile; and caste there-to Saffron and salt.
Fry the onions in hot oil until completely cooked through; remove from oil. In a large soup pot, combine ale, onions, & salt to taste. Bring to a boil, then reduce heat to simmer and cook for approx. 30 minutes.
Gourdes in Potage, Forme of Cury
Take young Gowrdes; pare hem and kerue hem on pecys. Cast hem in gode broth, and do þerto a gode pertye of oynouns mynced. Take pork soden; grynde it and alye it þerwith and wiþ yolkes of ayren. Do þerto safroun and salt, and messe it forth with powdour douce.
2 lbs. squash peeled and in chunks
3 onions, minced
3 cups broth
1/2 cup pork, boiled then minced or ground
2 egg yolks, beaten
1 tsp salt
2 tbs. of sugar and 1 tbs. each of cinnamon & ginger, mixed together
Boil to a boil the broth, squash, and onions. Reduce heat and cook until the squash just becomes tender. (Don't overcook or you'll wind up with mush.) Stir in the pork, egg yolks, saffron, and salt. Stir; allow to cook for a few minutes, then remove from heat. Serve with the sugar & spice mixture as a garnish.
Tart in ymbre day, Forme of Cury
Take and perboile oynouns & erbis & presse out þe water & hewe hem smale. Take grene chese & bray it in a morter, and temper it vp with ayren. Do þerto butter, saffroun & salt, & raisons corauns, & a litel sugur with powdour douce, & bake it in a trap, & serue it forth.
3 - 4 small onions, chopped
2 bunches of parsley, chopped
1 bunch each sage, basil, thyme, etc., chopped
1 cup shredded Cheddar cheese
8 eggs, beaten
1 Tbs. melted butter
½ tsp. salt
¼ cup currants
¼ tsp. sugar
1/8 tsp. each cloves and mace
1 nine-inch pie shell
Parboil or saute the onions and herbs; drain well. Mix with all other ingredients and place in pie shell. Bake at 350° for 35-40 minutes or until pastry is brown and filling is set.
Ravieles, Forme of Cury
Take wete chese and grynde hit smal, & medle hit wyt eyren & saffron and a god quantite of buttur. Make a thin foile of dowe & close hem þerin as turteletes, & cast hem in boylyng watur, & sethe hem þerin. Take hot burrur meltede & chese ygratede, & ley þi ravioles in dissches; & ley þi hote buttur wyt gratede chese bineþe & aboue, & cast þereon powdur douce.
4 cups flour
1/2 cup sugar
1 1/2 cup water
Mix together for pasta dough.
1/2 lb ricotta
1/4 lb butter
1 shallot, finely chopped
1/8 tsp ground sage
parsley, finely chopped
Mix filling ingredients together, drop into cut wrappers and seal, then drop individually into boiling water for about 5 minutes. Top with butter, parmesan, and parsley
Beef y-Stewed, Two Fifteenth Century Books
Take faire beef of the ribs of the forequarters, and smite in fair pieces, and wash the beef into a fair pot; then take the water that the beef was sodden in, and strain it through a strainer and seethe the same water and beef in a pot, and let them boil together; then take canel, cloves, maces, grains of paradise, cubebs and onions y-minced, parsley and sage, and cast thereto, and let them boil together; and then take a loaf of bread, and stepe it with broth and vinegar, and then draw it through a strainer, and let it be still; and when it is near enough, cast the liquor thereto, but not too much, and then let boil once, and cast saffron thereto a quantity; then take salt and vinegar, and cast thereto, and look that it be poynant enough, and serve forth.
1 lb beef, 3 medium onions
1/4 C chopped parsley
1 C beef stock, 1/2 t cinnamon
1/4 t cloves, 1 t sage
1/4 t mace, ½ tsp pepper
4 slices bread, pinch of saffron
1 t salt, vinegar
Add fresh water to cover and bouillon, bring to a boil, add parsley, onion, and spices. Simmer about 45 minutes. Meanwhile, put bread to soak in water and broth from the meat. After 45 minutes, add the bread, the saffron and salt, bring to a boil, and serve.
Alows de Beef or de Motoun, Two Fifteenth Century
Take fayre Bef of + e quyschons, and motoun of + e bottes, and kytte in + e maner of Stekys; + an take raw Percely, and Oynonys smal y-scredde, and yolkys of Eyroun so+ e hard, and Marow or swette, and hew alle + es to-geder smal; + an caste + er-on poudere of Gyngere and Saffroun, and tolle hem to-gederys with + in hond, and lay hem on + e Stekys al a-brode, and caste Salt + er-to; + en rolle to-gederys, and putte hem on a round spete, and roste hem til + ey ben y-now; + an lay hem in a dysshe, and pore + er-on Vynegre and a lityl verious, and pouder Pepir + er-on y-now, and Gyngere, and Canelle, and a fewe yolkys of hard Eyroun y-kremyd + er-on; and serue forth.
1/2 lb lamb or beef
1/3 c chopped parsley
1/4 c finely chopped onion
2 hard-boiled egg yolks
1 T lamb fat or marrow
1/4 t ginger
1/4 c vinegar
1/4 t more ginger
1/4 t cinnamon
Meat is sliced 1/4" thick; slices should be about 6" by 2". Spread with parsley, etc. mixture, roll up on skewers or toothpicks, broil about 10-12 minutes until brown. Mix sauce and pour over. Makes 6-8 rolls 2" long and 1" to 1 1/2" in diameter.
Ryse of flessh, Forme of Cury
Take ryse and waisshe hem clene, and do hem in an erthen pot with gode broth and lat hem seeþ wel.
Rice Cooked in Meat Broth
1 cup rice
2 cups stock
½ tsp. salt
Bring to a boil the rice and the broth; cook over low heat until rice is tender and the liquid is absorbed. Stir in remaining ingredients and serve.
Take faire capon broth, or of beef, And sette hit ouer the fire, and caste thereto mynced sauge, parcelly and saffron, And lete boile; And streyn the white and the yolke of egges thorgh a streynour, and caste there-to faire grated brede, and medle hit togidre with thi honde, And caste the stuff to the broth into the pan; And stirre it faire and softe til hit come togidre, and crudded; And then serue it forth hote.
½ C beef or chicken broth
1 tsp sage
1 Tb. parsley, chopped
1 C breadcrumbs
Place broth and spices in a pot and bring to a boil. Meanwhile, combine eggs and breadcrumbs in a bowl. Add breadcrumb mixture all at once to broth. Reduce heat and stir until it comes together more or less in a ball, and all the liquid is absorbed. Serve hot.
Buttered Wortes, Harleian
Take al manor of good herbes that thou may gete, and do bi ham as is forsaid; putte hem on þe fire with faire water; put þer-to clarefied buttur a grete quantite. Whan thei ben boyled ynough, salt hem; late none otemele come ther-in. Dise brede small in disshes, and powre on þe wortes, and serue hem forth.
8 cups of cauliflower or broccoli
1 cup chopped onions
1 stick butter
salt to taste
1 cup diced bread or unseasoned croutons
Cover greens with water; add butter and bring to a boil; add salt. Reduce heat & cook until vegetables are tender; drain. Place bread or croutons in serving bowl and cover with cooked greens.
A potage of Roysons, Harleian
Take Raysonys, & do a-way þe kyrnellys; & take a part of Applys, & do a-way þe corys, & þe pare, & bray hem in a mortere, & temper hem with Almande Mylke, & melle hem with flowre of Rys, þat it be clene chargeaunt, & straw vppe-on pouder of Galygale & of Gyngere, & serue it forth.
Apples with Raisins
1 cup raisins
1½ cup almond milk
1 Tbs. sugar
1 tsp. mixture of galingale & ginger
4 tbs. rice flour (or unbleached white)
4-6 apples, peeled, cored, and sliced
Boil the apples & raisins until the apples are very soft; drain well. Mash the fruit and place in a pan with the almond milk, spices, and sugar. Cook over medium heat. Add the flour and continue to cook until very thick. Add flour as necessary. Sprinkle top with ginger just before serving. Serves 6-8.
Chyches, Forme of Cury
Take chiches and wrye hem in askes al nyght oþer al a day, oþer lay hem in hoot aymers. At morowe waische hem in clene water, and do hem ouere the fire with clene water. Seeþ hem vp and do þerto oyle, garlek hole, safroun, powdour fort and salt; seeþ it and messe it forth.
Chickpeas and Garlic
3 cups chickpeas, dried or canned
the cloves of 2 whole garlic bulbs, peeled but left whole
1/2 tsp. each pepper & cloves (or season to taste)
If using canned peas, rinse well and drain; place chickpeas in a single layer on a baking sheet and roast in a 400° F oven for approx. 45 minutes, turning the peas midway through roasting to evenly cook. Be sure that they are completely cooked through - the texture and aroma will be that of roasted nuts. Remove from oven; place chickpeas in a pot with the garlic cloves; add enough water to come to about 1/4 to 1/2 inch from the top of the peas. Top off with olive oil, adding enough to just cover the peas. Add spices, and bring to a boil; reduce to a simmer, and continue cooking until garlic softens, about 10-15 minutes. Drain well or serve in the broth; serve hot. Serves 6-8.
Perry of pesoun, Forme of Cury
Take pesoun and seþ hem fast, and couere hem, til þei berst; þenne take hem vp and cole hem thurgh a cloth. Take oynouns and mynce hem, and seeþ hem in the same sewe, and oile þerwith; cast þerto sugar, salt and safroun, and seeþ hem wel þerafter, and serue hem forth.
Peas with Onions
2 lbs. frozen or fresh shelled peas
2-3 small onions, minced
3 tbs. olive oil
salt & sugar to taste
Bring to a boil the onions & peas; add the remaining ingredients and return to boil. Reduce heat slightly and cook until the vegetables are tender. Drain & serve. Dress with a little extra olive oil if desired.
Haddock or Codling, Harleian
Take an haddok or codlyng, and drawe him in the bely. And make sauce of water and salt; And whan hit bigynneth to boyle, skeme him clene, and caste the fissh thereto, And seth hit in his sauce. His sauce is garlek or verge-sauce; and serve him hote.
Poached Haddock with green/garlic sauce
1 lb fresh haddock or cod fillets
1 C water
1 tsp salt
Bring water and salt to a boil in a 10" skillet. Skim any scum that rises to the surface. Add the fish. Cook for 2 minutes on one side, flip and cook for 2 minutes more or until fish flakes. Serve with green/garlic sauce.
Verde Sawse, Forme of Cury
Take persel, mynt, garlek, a litul serpell and sawge; a litul canel, gynger, piper, wyne, brede, vyneger & salt; grynde it smal with safroun, & messe it forth.
2 tsp each fresh minced sage, parsley, and mint
1/8 tsp ground ginger, 1/8 tsp ground pepper
¼ C fine breadcrumbs, 1 Tb. vinegar
½ tsp salt, 1 tsp minced garlic
Blend in a blender, adding more or less vinegar to get the desired texture.
Peris in Syrippe, Harleian
Take Wardons, and cast hem in a faire potte, And boile hem til [th]ei ben tendre; and take hem vppe, and pare hem in ij. or in iij. And take powder of Canell, a good quantite, and cast hit in good red wyne, And cast sugur thereto, and put hit in an erthen potte, And lete boile; And then cast the peris thereto, And late hem boile togidre awhile; take powder of ginger, And a litell saffron to colloure hit with, And loke that hit be poynante/ And also Doucet/
Pears in Syrup
4 large ripe pears
1 cup burgundy wine
1/2 cup sugar
1 teaspoon cinnamon powder
1/2 teaspoon ginger powder
1/2 teaspoon, or to taste, red wine vinegar
pinch saffron, crushed
Optional: garnish with cinnamon sticks
Bring 1-inch of water to a boil in an enamelled pot. Put the pears in the pot, and reduce heat. Simmer gently for 10 minutes or until the pears are fork-tender. Do not overcook them. Take up the pears with a slotted spoon. When they are cool enough to handle, peel and core them, and slice them in half. Set them aside. Discard the cooking liquid. Put the remaining ingredients in an enamelled pot and bring to a boil. Reduce heat and cook gently until well blended. Add the halved pears and continue cooking until a syrup forms, about 5 minutes. Remove from heat. Take up the pears and arrange them on a white ceramic or crystal bowl, or place individual servings in crystal glasses. Strain the syrup through a fine strainer, and pour it over the pears. Serve warm.
Flathonys, Two Fifteenth Century
Take mylke, and yolkes of egges, and ale, and drawe hem thorgh a straynour, with white sugur or blak; And melt faire butter, and put thereto salt, and make faire coffyns, and put hem into a Nowne til thei be a litull hard; then take a pile, and a dissh fastned there-on, and fill the coffyns therewith of the seid stuffe and late hem bake a while. And then take hem oute, and serue hem forthe, and caste Sugur ynogh on hem.
1/2 c milk
4 egg yolks
1/4 c sugar
4 T butter
1 t salt
Bake a pie shell. Beat together milk, egg yolks, sugar. Melt butter, add salt, beat into the liquid, trying to keep the butter from separating out. Pour into the pie shell, bake at 350 for 20-30 minutes. Sprinkle on sugar (about 1 T) after the custard is reasonably solid.
Chris P. Adler© 2001