The College of Three Ravens




February 28, 2004



The Cauldron Bleu Cooks Guild

Barony of Thescorre

Maistres queux de bouche (Chief Cooks)

Don Eric Grenier de Labarre (Grendel)

Dame Katja Davidova Orlova Khazarina


Cuisinier (Lunch Cook)

milady Dubheasa inghean Dubgaill


Master of the Hall (Butler)

Don Grendel



Benefactor of the Barony Energizer Jean

Benefactor of the Barony Holly of Blackrock Castle


Kitchen Staff

Solliars (scullions), Carroniers (butchers)

& Pollaliers (poulterers)

Baroness Mistress Michaele del Vaga

Lady Bryn Ni MacRose

milady Dubheasa inghean Dubgaill

Lady Khazima bint Hakeem

Lord Caradwc Mendwr

milady Margreth Stewart

Lord Eldjarn

milord Lionheart

Lord Dark Oak

milady Isolda inghean bhi Seanagain

Lady Katrina of York

Lord Ulric

Lady Everild le Kember

Lord Cadifor Cynan

Lord Ruairidh

Baroness Mistress Sadira bint Wassouf

Lady Nezhah bint Saleem




All redactions of period recipes Chris Adler-France

 and Eric France©2004, except where noted.








Lunch Menu


15th Century English


Roo Broth (beef soup)

Losyns (cheese lasagne)

Hard-boiled eggs


Honey butter and butter




Hot mulled cider





Forme of Cury

Take good broth and do in an erthen pot. Take flour of payndemayn and make thereof past with water, and seeth it in the broth. Take cheese ruayn grated and lay it in dishes with powdour douce, and lay theron loseynss isode at hool as thou might, and aboe all powdour and chese; and so twyse or thryse, and serue it forth.

Cheese lasagne

(based on recipe from Traveling Dysshes, Siobhan Medhbh O’Roarke)

1 lb. lasagne noodles

1 lb. grated cheese

1 lb. drained ricotta or cottage cheese

4 tsp. butter

4 ts. flour

½ C. milk

½ C. sugar

¼ tsp. ginger

¼ tsp. nutmeg

extra grated cheese

Boil the noodles in water. Melt the butter in a pan, then add the flour and make a roux. Add the milk to make a bechamel. Add the cheese and stir until smooth. Drain the noodles. Dot the bottom of a square baking pan with butter. Put a layer of noodles, then smooth a layer of ricotta over them, then a layer of noodles, then the sauce and top with some grated cheese. Cook at 350 degrees for 20 minutes or until the top begins to bubble and turn lightly golden.


Roo broth

Forme of Cury

Roo broth wel to the same seruyse. Take venysoun & wasch it and culpoun it in a fyngerbroede & perboyle it; & than tak it yp & streyne the broth & do water to the venysoun, & pike it into the broth, & sette it ouer the feere, & do therto salt and percely and ysope and suerey and poudere of peper, and late sethe til it be tendre; & therto poudre of coloure & of maces & canel and quibibes, but look it be nought to hot.

Beef soup

(based on recipe from Traveling Dysshes, Siobhan Medhbh O’Roarke)

1 lb. beef sirloin

¾ C. fresh bread crumbs

¼ C. vinegar

¼ tsp. ginger

¼ tsp. cinnamon

1 tsp salt

½ C. raisins

Cover the meat with water in a pot and simmer for an hour. Soak the breadcrumbs in vinegar and stir into the soup to thicken. Mix the spices and raisins together and add to the soup and simmer.



Dinner Menu

A 14th Century French Meal


Scented Handwashing Water

Corbeil Trenchers (edible wheat/rye bread “plates”)


Met Premieré (First Course)

“Poiree” (pear juice)

“Hypocras” (spiced grape juice)

Pain de Main (fine white rolls)

Fresh Cheese

Crayfish (shrimp)

Poivre Noir (pepper-lemon sauce)

Syseros (chickpea salad)


Entremet (Subtlety)

Hedgehogs (meatloaf subtleties)

Emplumeus (apple sauce)


Met Deuxième (Second Course)

Calunafree of Partridge (Cornish game hens)

Cameline (cinnamon sauce)

Soup of New Peas (light pea soup)

Honey-Glazed Vegetables (carrots, squash, turnips)

Steamed Barley


Desservir (Dessert)

Fruit Rissoles (apple & raisin turnovers)

Dragees (candied seeds)



“…A very honorable feast be given, at which there may be kings, queens, dukes, duchesses, counts, countesses, princes, princesses, marquesses, marchionesses, barons, baronesses, and prelates of various classes, and nobles, too, in large number, the following things are necessary both to cook for the regular household and to do the feast honorably and to the honor of the lord who gives it.”

-- Mestre Chiquart Amiczo, Du fait de cuisine, 1420


Greetings from your cooks!

What we have prepared for you tonight is an abbreviated version of the head cook Chiquart’s famous banquet prepared in honor of the marriage of the daughter of the Duke of Savoy, in 1393.


It is supplemented with some dishes from the recipes of Guillaume Tirel (also known as Taillevent), the head cook to the royal French family in the late 14th Century, and even some non-noble dishes from the household handbook written in 1393 by an unknown elderly Parisian for his teenaged bride.


Why is this an abbreviated version, and why did we borrow some recipes from the other two sources? To answer the first question: a complete late-14th Century French meal for nobility would have included multiple eel, shellfish, fish, and fowl dishes, meat & fish jellies, flans, puddings, pies, soups, and sausages in addition to the roasted meat, vegetables, and sweets we have chosen for this feast. As for the latter, we wanted to show how some recipes differed between the three books… and we needed to find more vegetable recipes!


We hope you will enjoy your meal tonight, and please tell us if anything can be improved.  Be well,

Katja & Grendel





To Prepare Water for Washing the Hands at Table

Le Mènagier de Paris

Set sage to boil, then pour out the water and let it cool until it is just warm. Or you may instead use camomile or marjoram, or you may put in rosemary; and boil them with orange peel. And bay leaves are good too.

Scented handwashing water

Bay leaves and/or rosemary steeped in warm water




Early French Cookery, p. 36

“Several beverages were made from the juice that had been expressed from locally grown fruits in the Middle Ages, juice that was usually allowed to ferment for a short time in order to make an effervescent, mildly alcoholic drink. In particular, the French consumed poiree from pears, moree from blackberries, a quince cider, and, especially, an apple cider.”


Savoring the Past, p. 56, on Gilles de Gouberville, 1546

“Gouberville pressed cider and perry every fall…”


Maison Rustique, or the Countrey Farme, Arnold Hatfield, 1606

"Perrie is made of diuers sortes of peares: sometimes of rough, harsh, sowre, and wilde ones, neuer husbanded, planted, grafted, or otherwise hauing had anie labour or paines taken with them: such perrie will keep long, euen three or fower yeares, and be better at the ende then at the beginning. Sometimes of garden, tender and delicate peares, such as are the Eusebian and the Marie peare, the roset, hasting, rimolt, mollart, greening, butter peare, the Iaques du four peare, the little conie peare, the perplexed peare, the alabaster peare, the two headed peare, the dew peare, and the wood of Hierusalem: and such perrie is pleasant for a certaine time, but after it is once come to be fiue monethes old it becommeth voide of all taste and dead: the best and most excellent perrie is made of little yellow waxe peares, and such as haue beene throughly dressed and husbanded, as the little muske peare, the two headed peare, the peare robart, the fine gold peare, bargamot, tahou, squire, and such other peares, which haue a fast and solide flesh and hard coat. The amiot peare is commended aboue all the rest, ... Some doe also sometimes mingle diuers sorts of peares together to make perrie of."

Pear juice

SCA events cannot serve alcoholic drinks at dinner, so we are mimicking the feel of a medieval French meal by serving the basis of this period drink: pear juice.  Although not alcoholic, we hope that pear juice will give a more period feel rather than serving coffee or tea. – Katja & Grendel



To make powdered hypocras

Le Mènagier de Paris

Take a quarter-ounce of very fine cinnamon, hand-picked by tasting it, an ounce of very fine meche ginger and an ounce of grains of paradise, a sixth of an ounce of nutmeg and galingale together, and pound it all together. And when you want to make hippocras, take a good half-ounce or more of this powder and two quarter-ounces of sugar, and mix them together, and a quart of wine as measured in Paris. And note that the powder and the sugar mixed together make “duke's powder.”

            To make a quart or a quarter-ounce of hippocras by the measure used in Besiers, Carcassonne, or Montpelier, take five drams of fine select clean cinnamon, select peeled white ginger, three drams: of clove, grains, mace, galingale, nutmeg, nard, altogether one and a fourth drams: more of the first, and of the others less and less of each as you go down the list. Grind to powder, and with this put a pound and half a quarter-ounce, by the heavier measure, of ground rock sugar, and mix with the aforesaid spices; and have wine and the sugar melted on a dish on the fire, and add the powder, and mix: then put in the straining-bag, and strain until it comes out a clear red. Note that the cinnamon and the sugar should dominate.



Early French Cookery, p. 57 on Arnoldus of Villanova’s support of ypocras, approx. 1313

“This drink, Arnoldus argues, ‘fortifies the brain and the natural strength… It … causes foods to be digested and produces good blood. It is good for flatulence of the belly, and also for ailments of the womb caused by cold or superfluous humidity which prevents women from conceiving children… It strengthens all spiritual parts… It is marvellously useful for the cough and for the heart’.”

Spiced grape juice

1 gal. grape juice

1 Tb. cassia chunks

1 tsp. freshly grated nutmeg

2-inch sliced fresh ginger root

1 Tb. whole grains of paradise

½ lb. sugar

Mix all ingredients together and refrigerate to let steep. Strain out the spices before serving.

Once again, this fruit juice (spiced in the manner of hypocras) mimics the taste of the period drink without violating the Society ban on serving alcohol. – Katja & Grendel




Corbeil/Meslin Trenchers

Le Mènagier de Paris

Trencher bread, three dozen of half a foot in width and four fingers tall, baked four days before and browned, or what is called in the market Corbeil bread.

            Item, two bread-slicers, of whom one will crumb the bread and make trenchers and salt-cellars out of bread, and will carry the salt and the bread and the trenchers to the tables, and will provide for the dining-room two or three strainers for the solid leftovers such as sops, broken breads, trenchers, meats and such things…


Early French Cookery, p. 65-66

“The Menagier’s trencher bread was made in relatively small flat loaves, turned over in the oven in order to smooth both sides, dense and coarse in substance, and with hard crusts; it was made of a thickness that could be sliced horizontally in two so that with one of its tough crusts upwards it could become two trenchers… However, the most commonly available bread at this time was undoubtedly the large loaf that was made from a mixture of wheat and rye flours. This was miscelin or meslin bread, the bread eaten by the ordinary bourgeois and bought by the wealthy to feed to their servants.”

Bread plates

1 C warm water

2 T. yeast

1 T sugar (to proof the yeast)

4 C (mixed) rye and whole wheat flours

1 tsp. salt

Proof yeast in water with sugar. Add flours, etc. Knead until elastic. Let rise for an hour. Shape into two 6-inch-long flat loaves and let rise at room temperature for one hour until doubled. Brush with an egg wash. Bake at 375 degrees for 35 to 40 minutes, turning them over after 20 minutes. Makes two 3-lb. loaves. Slice each in half lengthwise to make four trenchers.



Pain de Main

Le Mènagier de Paris

At the baker's, ten dozen flat white bread baked one day ahead and costing one denier each.


Early French Cookery, p. 66

“The bread of first choice was always a crusty loaf (a bellied mound – not, of course, the elongated loaf with which we are more familiar), relatively white in color (though never much more so than a fawn shade), and of a fine texture because it was made from very finely ground wheat flour from which all the bran had been sieved away in the bolting cloth. On the tables of the wealthy in France the so-called pain de main, the small ‘individual-sized’ table loaf that resembled a good solid bun, was made of this fine wheat flour.”

White dinner rolls

1 C warm water

2 T. yeast

1 T sugar (to proof the yeast)

4 C all-purpose flour

2 tsp. salt

1 egg

½ C. butter

¼ C non-fat dry milk

Proof yeast in water with sugar. Add flours, etc. Knead until elastic. Let rise for an hour. Shape into orange-sized balls of equal size and let rise at room temperature for one hour until doubled. Brush with more butter (to make a soft crust). Bake at 375 degrees for 25 minutes.



To Know Good Cheese

Le Mènagier de Paris

Good cheese has six conditions. Non Argus, nec Helena, nec Maria Magdalena, sec Lazarus et Martinus, respondens pontifici. Not white like Helen, not weeping like Magdalene, not Argus, but completely blind, and as heavy as an ox: It is firm against the thumb, and its coat is fine. Without eyes, without weeping, not white, handsome, firm, well-weighted.


Caseus recens (Fresh Cheese)

Tacuinum Sanitatis, 1400s, quoted in Early French Cookery, p. 86

The thicker part of the milk condenses with the addition of rennet, the whey is expertly drawn off, and the cheese is formed. It is a very nourishing, substantial food which softens and fattens the body…

Fresh cheese

1 qt. whole milk

1 C. heavy cream

1 Tb. white wine vinegar

pinch salt

Heat milk and cream to “blood temperature,” which is about 105 degrees, but do not let the milk/cream come to a boil! Take off the stove, then add the vinegar to curdle it. Line a fine colander or sieve with two layers of cheesecloth, and place over a pot or bowl to catch the whey drips. Carefully dump the curds into the cheesecloth, gather up the ends, twist, and tie off. Let stand overnight in a cool part of your kitchen, away from marauding felines, ferrets, pups, or other creatures. The next day, add a pinch of salt to taste and stir gently.


     Note: We used vinegar, used in period to coagulate curds, rather than rennet, due to cost.



On Cookery

And as at such a feast there could be some very high, puissant, noble, venerable and honorable lords and ladies who do not eat meat, for these there must be fish, marine and fresh-water, fresh and salt, in such manner as one can get them.


Escrevisses (freshwater crayfish)

Le Mènagier de Paris

Cook them in water and wine, more wine than water, and skim, then add a little salt.


Escrevices (crayfish)

The Viandier de Taillevent, #117

Cooked in water and wine, eaten with vinegar.

Simmered shrimp

20 shrimp

pot of water

1 C. wine

pinch salt

Bring a pot of salted water to a boil and add the wine. Add the shrimp, turn off the heat, and let simmer for 10 minutes. Drain, and serve with black pepper sauce.



Poivre Noir (black pepper sauce)

The Viandier de Taillevent, #165

Grind ginger, round pepper, and burnt toast, infuse this in a good verjuice and boil it.


Black Pepper Sauce

Le Mènagier de Paris

Take a clove and a little pepper, ginger, and grind very fine: then grind toasted bread soaked in a little liquid from the meat or in a little cabbage-water which is better, then boil in an iron pan, and when boiling add vinegar; then put in a pot on the fire to keep hot.

Pepper sauce

1 C bread crumbs

1 tsp. freshly ground pepper

½ inch fresh minced gingerroot

1 C. vegetable broth

1 Tb. lemon juice

Bring broth, crumbs, & gingerroot to a boil in a pan. Add juice and pepper, and reduce for 5 minutes.



Puree de poys (puree of peas)

Le Mènagier de Paris

When you have new peas, sometimes they are cooked on a meat day both in meat stock and with ground parsley..


Cretonnée de pois nouveaulx (puree of new peas)

The Viandier de Taillevent, #11

Cook them until they can be pureed, then puree them and fry them in bacon grease…

Light pea soup

1 lb. frozen peas

2 qts. vegetable broth

2 qts. water

1 bunch fresh parsley, minced

pinch saffron

Bring water and broth to a simmer, add the seasonings and peas, and cook for 15minutes.

Rather than the heavy, thick, meat broth-based pottage intended above, we chose to make this as a light, vegetarian dish for our non-meat-eating guests at this meal. – Katja & Grendel



Syseros (A Pea Dish)

On Cookery, #76

To instruct the person who will be preparing the Pea Dish, he should get his chick peas and cull through them one by one so that there is nothing left but only the peas themselves, then he should wash them in three or four changes of warm water and put them to boil. When they have boiled, he should remove them from that water & put on a new, fresh water and them back in it again to boil. When they have boiled, he should let them sit in that kettle until the next day, when he should drain off the water and again put in new fresh water, and put them to boil, with a very little salt, some almond oil, whole parsley… & a little sage.

Chickpea salad

1 can chickpeas

pinch salt

1 Tb. almond oil

2 Tb. minced parsley

1 tsp. dried sage

Mix chickpeas with seasonings, cover, and chill to let flavorings blend.



Herissons (Hedgehogs)

The Viandier de Taillevent, #210

Chop raw meat as small as possible; mix seedless grapes and crumbled rich cheese together with fine spice powder; get sheep cauls, scald them and wash them thoroughly – though not in water hot enough to shrink them – and fill them with the chopped meat, and then sew them up with a little wooden skewer.


More detail on hedgehog preparation is provided in the following English recipe, Yrchons – K&G

Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery-Books, Thomas Austin, London, Oxford University Press, 1988.

…Take blaunchid Almaundys, & kerf hem long, smal & scharpe, & frye hem in grece & sugre; take a litel prycke, & prykke the yrchons, An putte in the holes the Almaundys, every hole half, & eche for other; ley hem then to the fyre.


Le Mènagier de Paris

Take raw lean meat from a mutton thigh, and the same from a lean pork thigh. It should be all chopped very finely together, then grind in the mortar ginger, grains, clove, and sprinkle it into your chopped meat, and then moisten with egg-white with no yolk; then use your hands to shape the raw meat and spices… then when the shapes are well made, put them on to cook in water with salt, then take them out, and have some hazelwood skewers and spit them and set them to roast; and when they turn brown, have some parsley ground and sieved and flour mixed together, neither too clear nor too thick…

Item, hedgehogs are made with mutton balls, and this is very expensive and a lot of work with poor returns and little profit, so no more of this.

Although these recipes were prepared with pork and/or lamb, we chose to use beef so as to provide a meat choice for our Kosher guests. The meat was freshly ground, not purchased as pre-packaged ground beef. – Katja & Grendel

Molded meatloaves

4 lbs. ground beef

½ C. minced raisins

4 eggs

4 C. bread crumbs

1 Tb. ground ginger

1 Tb. grains of paradise

1 tsp. salt

toasted almond slivers, raisins, and greens for garnish

Mix together ingredients and form into loaves rounded at one and pointed at the opposite end. Spray with oil and bake at 350 for 1 hour, rotating each 15 minutes to allow even roasting.




Emplumeus de pomes (an applesauce)

On Cookery, #73

Get good Barbarin apples in the amount that are to be done, pare them properly and slice them up into fine gold or silver dishes. He should have a fine, good clean earthenware pot, put good clean water in it and set this to boil over good bright coals and set his apples to boil in it.


1 lb. apples

2 C. water (or enough to just cover the apples)

1 Tb. sugar

Peel and slice apples, then place in a Dutch oven. Add enough water just to cover the apples, and let simmer for 30 minutes until the apples are softened. Add sugar if not sweet enough.



Calunafree de perdix (partridge)

On Cookery, #47

He who will make it should take his partridges and clean them well and properly and restore(?) them and lard them very well and then spit and roast them very well and properly; and when they are roasted, take them off onto a fair and clean board, and then take them one after the other and cut them into fair members and leave the wings whole and cut the white meat very small as if one were carving it before the lord, and put this on fair silver dishes -- and if you do not have enough silver dishes put then in a fair and clean pan. And take a great deal of cameline sauce and put it so that it covers everything, and put on only enough mustard to give it taste, and put on verjuice to cover everything. And according as you have meat take onions and chop them very small and put them in, and sugar, and flavor it with salt in good manner; and then put it to boil. And then when it comes to the sideboard arrange it in good order on fair serving dishes.


Stuffed Chicks

Le Mènagier de Paris

…scald, pluck, gut, put it back together and stuff… And note that the stuffing is made of parsley and a little sage with hard-cooked eggs and butter, all chopped up together, and powdered spices too. For each chick you need three eggs, whites and all.


Poullaille farce (stuffed poultry)

Viviendier of Taillevent, 1370

Take your hens, cut their neck, scald and pluck them, and be careful that the skin remains undamaged and whole; and do not plump the birds…To make the stuffing, take mutton, veal, pork, and the cooked dark meat of chickens, and chop up all of this raw, and grind it in a mortar, together with a great quantity of raw eggs, cooked chestnuts, a good rich cheese, good spice powder and a little saffron, and salt to taste. Then stuff your chickens and sew up the hole again...

Roasted Cornish game hens

2 Cornish game hens, cleaned and rubbed with butter

5 to 10 strips of bacon, finely chopped

1 tsp. prepared mustard

¼ C minced fresh parsley

1 pinch rubbed dry sage

1 C. fresh bread crumbs

2 pinches salt

2 tb. Reggiano

1 pinch pepper

Preheat oven to 400 degrees. Saute bacon until crisp, add seasonings, then bread crumbs, and combine. Stuff into birds with a spoon, then place breast-down on a baking sheet and roast for 25 minutes. Flip carefully onto their backs, then continue roasting birds for an additional 20 minutes until they are 160 degrees inside.



To Make Camelin Sauce

Viviendier of Taillevent, 1370, #155

Grind ginger, a great deal of cinnamon, cloves, grains of paradise, mace, and if you wish, long pepper; strain bread that has been moistened in vinegar, strain everything together and salt as necessary.



Le Mènagier de Paris

Note that at Tournais, to make cameline, they grind together ginger, cinnamon and saffron and half a nutmeg: soak in wine, then take out of the mortar; then have white bread crumbs, not toasted, moistened with cold water and grind in the mortar, soak in wine and strain, then boil it all, and lastly add red sugar: and this is winter cameline. And in summer they make it the same way, but it is not boiled. And in truth, for my taste, the winter sort is good, but the following is much better: grind a little ginger with lots of cinnamon, then take it out, and have lots of toasted bread or bread-crumbs in vinegar, ground and strained.

Cinnamon sauce

4 C breadcrumbs

4 C water

½ red wine vinegar

¼ C cinnamon

pinch grains of paradise, cubebs

1 Tb. sugar




A Barley Dish

On Cookery, #78

To instruct the person who will be getting it ready, he should see that he has his pure barley and have it ground in such a way that the grains remain whole; and when it has been ground, put it back into the winnowing-sieve and winnow it and remove all straw from it, then cull through it and clean it so that only the grains remain, then wash it in three or four or more changes of warm water until it is thoroughly cleaned; then put it to boil in good water in a bright, good and clean kettle, skimming it carefully. When it has come to a boil, drain the water off, then, when it is well drained, put good fresh water again and put it back to boil until it is done; then take it down onto warm coals and let it sit there until the next day, covering it good and neatly…


Formentee (frumenty)

Viandier of Taillevent, 1370

Clean grains of wheat in warm water, wrap in a cloth and beat heavily on this with a pestle until all the chaff has separated, and wash it well and cook it in water; when it has cooked, mash it; bring cow’s milk to a boil, put the wheat into it and bring it to a boil again stirring frequently; remove this from the fire and stir frequently and add a great quantity of beaten egg yolks, and it should not be too hot when they are added; and some people add spices and a little saffron and venison water.



Le Mènagier de Paris

First, you must hull your wheat the same as you would for hulled barley, and remember that for ten bowls you need a pound of hulled wheat, which you can sometimes find at the spice-shop already hulled for one blanc per pound. Clean it and cook it in water in the evening, and leave it overnight covered by the fire in lukewarm water, then take it out and wash it. Then boil milk in a skillet and do not stir it, for it would turn: and without waiting, put it all at once into a clean pot; and when it is cold, take the cream off the top so that this cream does not cause the frumenty to turn, and then boil the milk again with a little wheat, but very little wheat; then take egg yolks and pour them in, that for each sixth of milk a hundred eggs, then take the boiling milk, and beat the eggs with the milk, then move the pot back and throw in the eggs, and move it back (away); and if you see that it is trying to turn, put the pot in a full pail of water. On fish days, use milk: on meat days, use meat juices; and you can add saffron if the eggs aren't yellow enough; item, half a piece of ginger.


To Clean Barley or Wheat To Make Frumenty

You need very hot water, and put the wheat or barley in this hot water, and wash and rub very thoroughly for a long time: then pour off all the water, and let the wheat or barley dry and then pound it with a wooden pestle, then winnow it in a wash-basin.

Barley with milk

5 lbs. toasted barley

1 qt. milk

Cook barley in milk and water for 1 hour until cooked through.



This Is The Way To Make Compote (turnips, carrots, and gourds)

Le Mènagier de Paris

  Take, around All Saints Day (November 1), large turnips, and peel them and chop them in quarters, and then put on to cook in water: and when they are partially cooked, take them out and put them in cold water to make them tender, and then let them drain; and take honey and do the same as with the walnuts, and be careful not to over-cook your turnips.

  Item, on All Saints, take carrots as many as you wish, and when they are well cleaned and chopped in pieces, cook them like the turnips. (Carrots are red roots which are sold at the Halles in baskets, and each basket costs one blanc.)

  Item, when gourds are in season, take those which are neither too hard nor too tender, and peel them and remove the seeds and cut into quarters, and do the same to them as to the turnips.

            We chose to combine these three different recipes for making preserved root vegetables into one dish, so as to provide variety for our guests. – Katja & Grendel

Honey-glazed root vegetables

5 lbs. carrots

3 lbs. turnips

5 lbs. squash



Peel vegetables and chop or slice. Braise in a little water until softened slightly, then season with salt to taste and drizzle on honey.



Rosseolles on a Fish Day (Fruit rissoles)

Le Mènagier de Paris

Item, on ordinary days, they can be made of figs, grapes, chopped apples and shelled nuts to mimic pignon nuts, and powdered spices: and the dough should be very well saffroned, then fry them in oil. If you need a liaison, starch binds and so does rice.



On Cookery, #51

…And arrange that you have figs, prunes, dates, pine nuts, and candied raisins; remove the stems from the raisins, and the shells from the pine nuts, and all other things which are not clean; and then wash all this very well one or two or three times in good white wine and then put them to drain on fair and clean boards; and then cut the figs and prunes and dates all into small dice and mix them with your filling. And then arrange that you have the best cheese which can be made… and then mix this very well with your filling, and eggs also; and take your spices: white ginger, grains of paradise--and not too much, saffron, and a great deal of sugar according to the quantity which you are making. And then deliver your filling to your pastry-cook, and let him be prepared to make his fair leaves of pastry to make gold-colored crusts(?); and when they are made, let him bring them to you and you should have fair white pork lard to fry them; and when they are fried, you should have gold leaf: for each gold-colored crust(?) which there is, have one little leaf of gold to put on top. And when this comes to the sideboard arrange them on fair serving dishes and then throw sugar on top.

Fruit turnovers

  Dough (Early French Cookery, p. 70)

½ C warm water

3 to 4 Tb. butter

½ tsp salt

pinch saffron to make the crusts golden

1-½ C soft flour

Mix together water, oil, salt, and saffron. Stir in flour a little at a time. Knead until smooth. Let rest half an hour. Roll out to the thickness of a dime, and cut into 4-inch rounds. Fill and seal edges with water/flour mixture. Cook in boiling water for 5 minutes and drain. Pan-fry in butter and serve.

  Fruit filling

5 lbs. apples

1 lb. figs

2 lbs. cottage cheese  or farmers cheese

1 lb. raisins

1 C. sugar

1 Tb. cinnamon




Le Mènagier de Paris

…half a pound of anise, a quatrain and a half of fennel, a quatrain and a half of coriander, a quatrain and a half of caraway seed, which is a seed eaten in dragees…

  For dessert: compete, with red and white sugared dragees placed on top: rissoles, flans, figs, dates, grapes, nuts… Hippocras and the wafer dish to finish.


On Cookery, #23

…when it is to be dressed do not forget the sugar-spice pellets [dragiees] which should be scattered on top.

Candied seeds

1 cup fine sugar

½ C seeds (coriander, anise, caraway, fennel)

½ C hot water

red and white food coloring

Cook a sugar syrup to the soft ball stage. Spoon some over dry seeds and stir them around with a fork. Keep adding syrup and stirring the seeds to build up layers of candying. Let cool between layers.



An Acquired Taste: The French Origins of Modern Cooking, T. Sarah Peterson, Cornell University Press, 1994.


Chiquart’s On Cookery (Du Fait de Cuisine), 1420; translation, Terence Scully, Peter Lang, New York, 1986.


          Elizabeth Cook translation available on-line at


Early French Cookery: Sources, History, Original Recipes and Modern Adaptations, D. Eleanor Scully and Terence Scully, University of Michigan Press, 1995.


Le Mènagier de Paris (The Goodman of Paris): A Treatise on Moral and Domestic Economy by A Citizen of Paris, 1393; translation by Eileen Power, Harcourt Brace and Company, New York, 1928.


          Janet Hinson translation available on-line at


The Viandier of Taillevent (Guillame Tirel, the Provisioner): An Edition of All Extant Manuscripts (c. 1370), edited by Terence Scully, University of Ottawa Press, 1988.


          Dr. Thomas Gloning transcription (in French) available on-line at