Coronation of

Robin & Isabeau


Menus & Recipes for

A Roman Lunch

And A Greek Dinner


Cauldron Bleu Cooks Guild

Barony of thescorre

Kingdom of Æthelmearc


September 24, 2005

Kitchen Staff

Head Cook

Dame Katja Davidova Orlova Khazarina


Lunch Cooks

Lady Colette de Paris

Lady Dubheasa inghean Dubgaill



Don Eric Grenier de Labarre (Grendel)



Lord Vettius


Cooks & Bakers

Lady Bryn ni MacRose

Lady Katrina of York

Lord Caradawc Mendwr

Milady Holly of Blackrock Castle

Milord Energizer Jean

Lord Eldjarn the Thoghtful

Lord Carlo Gallucci

Lady Juliana de Beaujeau

Lord Padraig O’Chaeleichair

Lady Mairghread ui Stilbhard uu Coinn

Lady Nivah

Baroness Olivia d’Anjou

Lord Ulric of Thescorre

Lord Ruaidri

Lord Cadifor Cynan

Baroness Sadira bint Wassouf

Baron Steffan Wolfgang von Ravensburg


Lady Otelia of Alsace



Baron Steffan Wolfgang von Ravensburg

Lunch Menu

Spiced grape juice

Chicken, egg, and lemon soup

(a vegetarian version of the soup will be offered)

Stuffed grape leaves

Smoked sausages

Barley rolls

Garlic cheese


Sesame/nut brittle


Conditum Paradoxum

Faux Spiced Wine

Making Conditum Paradoxum. 15 (lb) honey are put in a bronze jar which already contains 2 pints wine, so that you boil down the wine as you cook the honey. This to be heated over a slow fire of dry wood, stirring with a stick as it cooks: if it begins to boil over it is stopped with a splash of wine; in any case it will simmer down when the heat is taken away, and, when cooled, re-ignited. This must be repeated a second and a third time; then the mixture is finally removed from the brazier and, on the following day, skimmed. Next 4 oz ready-ground pepper, 3 scruples mastic, 1 dram each bay leaf and saffron, 5 roasted date stones, and the dates themselves softened in wine to a smooth puree. When all this is ready, pour on 18 pints smooth wine. If the finished product is bitter, coal will correct it.

Based on recipe in

The Classical Cookbook, p. 101

White grape juice

¾ C. honey

½ tsp. ground black pepper

1 bay leaf

Pinch saffron powder or 1 strand saffron

Put 5 fl oz of the juice in a saucepan with the honey and bring it to the boil. Skim if necessary. Repeat and remove from the heat. Add the seasonings while it is hot: this speeds up the flavouring process. When it is cold, add the rest of the juice and allow to stand overnight. To serve, strain through a fine sieve or muslin.



Chicken, Egg, and Lemon Soup

Based on recipe in

Stefan’s Florilegium

2 chickens

1 bottle (250 mi) lemon juice

4 to 6 C. white rice

8 eggs



Garlic powder

Onion powder

Ground oregano

Remove the chicken innards and rinse the chickens well. Put sufficient water to cover the chickens in the pot and bring to the boil. While waiting for the water to boil, rub a generous amount of salt - I use about a handful per chicken - all over the chickens. Then sprinkle pepper (and the garlic, onion and oregano if you're using them) over the chickens. When the water is boiling, add the chickens and leave to cook on a reduced heat (this generally takes about 1 - 2 hours).   When the chickens are cooked, put them on a platter to cool. Remove a large mugful of stock from the pot and leave it to cool. Taste the stock and add more seasoning if required and then put the rice in the stock to cook. While waiting for the rice to cook, strip the meat from the chickens. When the rice is cooked, reduce the heat to a simmer and return the meat to the soup.   As the rice is cooking, test how hot the mugful of stock is - when you can dip your little finger in it for about 30 seconds without feeling uncomfortably hot, it is ready. Once you can do this, separate the whites from the yolks and, in a large bowl, beat the egg whites till they're stiff (if you dip a spoon in the mixture and the egg white doesn't immediately fall off the spoon, it is ready). Gently stir in the egg yolks, then the mugful of stock (this is important as it means the egg mixture is less likely to curdle when it is put in the soup) and then the lemon juice. Pour this mixture into the soup - after the rice is cooked - and gently stir it in (the heat must be on simmer, otherwise the eggs will curdle). After it's warmed through, taste the soup and add more lemon if required (if it's too 'lemony', add a little more salt).   Serve immediately if you can - if not, the soup must be re-heated on a low heat (to stop the eggs curdling) and stirred frequently. If you are re-heating the soup the next day, you may need to add more lemon juice. Water may also be added if the soup has become too thick. 


[Vegetarian version contains vegetable broth and a selection of fresh vegetables in place of the chicken and chicken broth.]



Thrion ex Oryza

Goat’s Cheese and Rice in Vine Leaves

 Thrion is wheat groats or rice or finest wheat flour boiled in sufficient qualities. Then pour off the water and knead the mixture with soft cheese and a few eggs. Then it is enclosed with fig leaves and tied up with hemp or papyrus or flax and placed in a stock of boiled meat until it has been sufficiently cooked. Then take out, remove the leaves, put in a new frying pan with fresh honey and cook. Turn it until it is properly done and is brown. Remove and serve with honey poured around it, either from the boiled honey or another lot of honey. It is called thrion because of the fig leaves which are called by the same name.

Based on recipe in

Roman Cookery, p. 94

3 oz basmati rice

1 Tb. olive oil

1 beef stock cube

3 oz feta

20 to 25 vine leaves

1 egg

Sea salt

Fry the rice in olive oil for two minutes in a heavy pan, stirring frequently. Add 1 pint of boiling water, season with salt, turn down the heat and simmer gently with the lid on until the rice is expanded and soft and the water all absorbed into the rice. Remove the pan from the flame. Finely dice the cheese and beat the egg and combine them with the rice. Take a heaped tablespoon of the rice mixture and lay it on the bottom third of a vine leaf. Bring the bottom part of the leaf over the rice mixture, fold the sides of the leaf over and then roll the rice mixture up to the top of the leaf to form a neat parcel. Repeat the process until all the rice has been used. Place the parcels in a casserole. Dissolve the stock cube in half a pint of boiling water and pour over the rice parcels. Put the covered casserole in the oven at 330 degrees for an hour.




Smoked Sausages

Lucanicae similarly: crush pepper, cumin, savory, rue, parsley, mixed herbs, bay berry, fish sauce, and mix in well-beaten meat, rubbing it well into the mixture. Then, adding fish sauce, whole peppercorns, plenty of fat, and pine kernels, stuff into an intestine (pulled as thin as possible) and hang in the smoke.

Based on recipe in

The Classical Cookbook, p. 90

1 lb belly pork, minced (ground)

2 Tb. pine kernels

20 black peppercorns

2 tsp dried savory

1 heaped tsp ground cumin

1 tsp. ground black pepper

2 tsp. chopped fresh parsley

3 Tb. fish sauce

Sausage skins

Combine all the filling ingredients and mix well: use a food processor if available. If you have fresh skins, they will be preserved in salt and will need to be washed. You will need about 6 x 12-inch lengths. Tie a knot in the end of each one. Put a ½-inch plain tube in a piping bag and half-fill with the mixture; do not put too much in at a time or it will be difficult to squeeze. Take the open end of the skin, pull it over the tube and push it down repeatedly until the majority of the skin sits like a collar half-way down the tube. Grip this with your finger and thumb and slowly release the skin as you squeeze the bag. Stop squeezing well before the skin has run out, leaving 2-3 inches of skin to allow for shrinkage. It will take some practice before you get this procedure right. When you have used up all the meat, twist each length of sausage into 4 even segments. If you are able to smoke them, drape them over a coat-hanger or similar item and suspend in the smoke. Otherwise cut them into individual sausages and grill them under a medium heat.



Barley Rolls

First I shall recall the gifts to humankind of fair-haired Demeter, friend Moschus: take them to your heart. The best one can get, the finest of all, cleanly hulled from good ripe ears, is the barley from the sea-washed breast of famous Eresus in Lesbos – whiter than airborne snow. If the gods eat barley, this is where Hermes goes shopping for it.

Based on recipe in

The Classical Cookbook, p. 52


 ½ C barley flour

½ tsp. dried yeast



1½ C strong wholewheat flour

1½ C barley flour

1 tsp. salt

For the leaven, dissolve the yeast in 1 Tb. warm water and use to form a dough with ½ C. barley flour. Knead the dough briefly, mold into a pat, cross it lightly and put a thumb-print in the centre. Pour 2 tsp. of warm water into the indentation. Place in a glass dish with a lid and leave to ferment in warm place for at least 24 hours.

Now for the dough: sift the wholewheat and barley flours together, add 1 tsp. salt and the leaven and form a dough with sufficient warm water. Knead well and allow to rest and rise in a bowl, covered with plastic wrap or a plastic bag, in a worm place until it has doubled in size. Divide the dough into 12 pieces and mould them with the palm of your hand into smooth balls. Leave to rise in a warm place, covered with a cloth.

Heat the oven to 400 degrees and also heat a baking tray and an upturned casserole, shallow clay pot or metal bowl – whatever you decide to use as a “baking cover”. Brush the tray with a little olive oil and place the rolls in 2 circles of 6, with the edges barely touching. Cover with the upturned container and bake for 15 to 20 minutes until lightly golden and hollow-sounding when tapped.



Garlic Cheese

First, lightly digging into the ground with his fingers, he pulls up four heads of garlic with their thick leaves; then he picks slim celery-tops and sturdy rue and the thin stems of trembling coriander. With these collected he sits before the fire and sends the slave-girl for mortar. He splashes a grass-grown bulb with water, and puts it to the hollow mortar. He seasons with grains of salt, and after the salt, hard cheese is added; then he mixes in the herbs. With the pestle, his right hand works at the fiery garlic, then he crushes all alike in a mixture. His hand circles. Gradually the ingredients lose their individuality; out of the many colours emerges one – neither wholly green (for the white tempers it), nor shining white (since tinted by so many herbs). The work goes on: not jerkily, as before, but more heavily the pestle makes its slow circuits. So he sprinkles in some drops of Athena’s olive oil, and adds a little sharp vinegar, and again works his mixture together. Then at length he runs two fingers round the mortar, gathering the whole mixture into a ball, so as to produce the form and name of a finished moretum. Meanwhile busy Scybale has bakes a loaf. This he takes, after wiping his hands….

Based on recipe in

The Classical Cookbook, p. 85

2 heads garlic (1 head roasted)

16 oz pecorino romano cheese

1 large handful of coriander leaves (cilantro)

2 heaped tsp. chopped fresh celery leaf

1 tsp. salt

1 Tb. white wine vinegar

1 Tb. olive oil

Peel and roughly chop the garlic. Grate the cheese. Roughly chop the herbs. If you are grinding by hand, start with the garlic and salt; break it down to a pulp, then add the cheese and herbs. When you have a smooth mixture add the liquids and mix well. Gather the mixture together and chill. If you are using a food processor, add all the solid ingredients and process until the mixture is smooth in texture, then add the liquids. Serve with a crusty loaf as a snack.



Alexandrine sweets

Sesame/nut brittle

Harpocration of Medes calls the Alexandrian kind of cake a pankapra. This is crumbled itria boiled with honey.

There are two kinds of itria, the better kind called ryemata (flowed out) and the poorer kind called lagana (wafer).

Itria: presents, nibbles, biscuity shapes.

Based on recipe in

The Classical Cookbook, p. 54

1 C. sesame seeds

¾ C. chopped walnuts and almonds

¾ C. honey

Roast the sesame seeds and nuts in the oven at 350 degrees until they are golden. Put the honey in a saucepan and bring to a boil, then skim and continue to simmer gently for 7 minutes. Add the nuts and sesame seeds to the honey while warm and mix well. Grease a shallow baking tray and spread the mixture out on it. Allow to cool until you can handle the mixture and break into large pieces.


Sources Cited for Lunch

The Classical Cookbook.  Dalby, Andrew and Grainger, Sally. The British Museum Press. London. 2000.

Roman Cookery: Ancient Recipes for Modern Kitchens. Grant, Mark. Serif. London. 2000.

Stefan’s Florilegium file on food of Greece:




Dinner Menu

Hydromel (non-alcoholic honey water)

Mock raisin wine (dark grape juice)


Platters on the Tables:

Cappadocian bread (soft, sweet white bread)

Cheese foccacia

Pepper braids

Melca (fresh cheese curds)

Mixtura cum nucleis pineus (herb/nut pesto)

Olive relish

Fresh grapes *

Dried dates*


First course:

Shrimp with honey sauce

Salad of alexanders (celery, fresh greens, raisins, honey, and onions)

Lentil soup with leeks and savory


Second Course:

Saffron-scented chickpeas with parmesan

Polenta de Hordeo (barley pilaf with toasted spices)

Pork loin with figs & wine


Third Course:

Fresh seasonal fruit (pears or melon)*

Sesame cakes

Honeyed ricotta cheese fried dough



*cited in Galen, On Food and Diet




Honey water

Chop up 32 of the finest apples, removing the core with a reed, mix in 8 pints of the best honey and leave for 8 months. Mix in 12 pints of old rainwater and warm in the sun in the heat of the Dog-Star, guarding against rain and dew. Some people make a superior version by preparing the honey water in the following way: the finest ripe apples are chopped up and have their juice extracted; 4 pints of juice and 8 pints of the finest honey, mixed with 12 pints of rain water, and after being warmed in the sun, a fire is used to simmer it gently.

Bassus, Country Matters

Quoted in and based on recipe in

Roman Cookery, p. 82

16 oz. apple juice

24 oz. honey

48 oz water

Combine and simmer for half an hour. Cool, strain, and refrigerate before serving.




Fresh cheese curds

The best method for making what are known as curds is to pour sharp vinegar into new earthenware pots and then to put these pots on a slow fire. When the vinegar begins to boil, take it off the flame so it does not bubble over and pour milk into the pots. Place the pots in a store or some other place where they will not be disturbed. The next day you will have curds…

Bassus, Country Matters

recipe based on Dame Aoife Finn’s Cheese Making for the Compleat Novice

½ pt. whole milk

½ pt. heavy cream (not ultra pasteurized)

1 Tb. vinegar

Pinch of salt

Heat the milk and cream in a saucepan until it begins to bubble and rise. Remove the saucepan from the heat and stir in the vinegar. Pour the milk into a bowl, cover with a clean cloth and leave to stand undisturbed overnight. Tip or ladle the curds into a muslin bag or a piece of doubled muslin placed over a colander. Tie up in the muslin bag or cloth with string and hang it on a hook for the whey to drain into a bowl for at least four hours or ovenight.  Season with salt, and store refrigerated for up to two or three days



MixturA cum nucleis pineis

Herb puree with pine kernels

Chop into small pieces Gallic cheese or any other well-known cheese you like. Pound it. Take pine kernels, if have a lot of them, but if not, hazelnuts toasted after tehir shells have been removed, or almonds, and mix them in equal quantity with the seasonings detailed above [savory, mint, rue, coriander, parsley, leek, lettuce leaves, thyme, or catnip]. Add a small amount of peppered vinegar and blend. Pour some olive oil over the mixture.

Columella, On Agriculture

Quoted in and based on recipe in

Roman Cookery, p. 103.

 C. toasted pinenuts and/or almonds

1 bunch fresh parsley

C. extra-virgin olive oil

red wine vinegar

Pinch freshly ground black pepper

4 oz feta cheese

Handful fresh cilantro

2 to 3 leaves fresh mint

Sprig each of fresh savory and thyme

Sea salt

1 scallion

Blend all ingredients in a food processor and puree until smooth.



to make green, black, or mixed olive relish

Olive Relish

Remove stones from green, black, or mixed olives, then prepare as follows: chop them and add oil, vinegar, coriander, cumin, fennel, rue, mint. Pot them; the oil should cover them. Ready to use.

Cato, On Agriculture

Quoted in and based on recipe in

The Classical Cookbook, p. 31

½ C. black olives, preferably Kalamata

½ C. green olives

4 Tb. red wine vinegar

4 Tb. olive oil

1 tsp. minced fennel root and leaf

1 tsp. freshly ground coriander seed

1 tsp. freshly ground cumin seed

1 tsp. minced fresh mint

Roughly chop the olives and mix with the oil, vinegar, herbs, and spices.



Hapalos Artos

Cappodocian bread

Amongst the Greeks is a bread called “soft” which is made with a little milk and sufficient olive oil and salt. The dough must be made supple. This bread is called “Cappodocian” since for the most part “soft” bread is made in Cappodocia.

Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists

Quoted in and based on recipe in

Roman Cookery, p. 52

4 C. all-purpose flour

1⅓ C. warm water

1 tsp. yeast

1 tsp. sugar

½ C. olive oil

C. warm milk

Pinch sea salt

Dissolve the yeast and sugar in the water and let proof for 10 minutes. Add the oil and milk. Mix the flour and salt in a bowl, form a well in the center, and add the yeast mixture and mix well. Knead well, adding a little flour as needed. Cover and let rise for an hour. Punch down and form into a long loaf. Grease a baking sheet, place the loaf on it, cover, and let rise for an hour until doubled. Bake at 400 for 40 minutes until pale gold.



Streptikios Artos

Plaited pepper bread

Twisted bread is made with a little milk, and there is added pepper and a small amount of olive oil; or if not oil, then lard.

Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists

Quoted in and based on recipe in

Roman Cookery, p. 54

1 C. warm water

1 tsp. yeast

4 C.  white flour

⅔ C whole wheat flour

  C. milk, preferably goat

½ C. olive oil

2 tsp. freshly ground pepper

1 tsp. sea salt

Proof the yeast in the water with some of the flour. Add the remaining ingredients except for the egg white, and knead well. Cover and let rise until doubled, for roughly an hour. Punch down, then divide the dough into three equal portions and roll out into long strips. Braid and press the ends together and under gently. Place on a greased baking sheet, cover, and let rise until doubled. Bake in a 400-degree oven for 40 minutes utnil golden. Turn out onto a cooling rack.




Cheese focaccia

A loaf of bread with the consistentcy of cake prepared with cheese and olive oil.

Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists

Quoted in and based on recipe in

Roman Cookery, p. 55

2 C. warm water

1 tsp. yeast

3 C. all-purpose flour

1 C. whole-wheat flour

2 tsp. sea salt

½ C. olive oil

4 oz. feta, finely diced

4 oz. shredded parmesan

Proof the yeast in the water with some of the flour.  Sift together the flour and salt and stir into water mixture, then add the oil.  Knead well.  Cover and let rise until doubled. Punch down, then gently knead in the cheese. Roll out and form into flat discs. Cover and let rise. Bake at 400 for 25 minutes.



Honey-glazed shrimp

…In came a pair of slaves with a shiny table, and another, and another, until they filled the room. They fetched in snow-white barley-rolls in baskets, a casserole… honey-glazed shrimps, squid sprinkled with sea-salt…

Attributed to Philoxenus of Leucas, Banquet

Quoted in and based on recipe in

The Classical Cookbook, p. 48

1 lb. cooked, peeled shrimp

2 Tb. clear honey

1 Tb. balsamic vinegar

Freshly ground pepper

Fresh minced herbs

Gently heat the honey, mix with the vinegar and seasonings, and serve with the chilled shrimp.



Erebinthoi syn Xeroi Tyroi

Saffron-scented chickpeas with parmesan

Chick-peas boiled in water are customarily eaten by many people, some serving them plain, others seasoning them with a little salt. Those who live where I do make a sort of flour out of dried cheese and sprinkle the chick-peas with this.

Galen, On the Powers of Food

And then chick-peas marinated in saffron, plump in their tender youth.

Philoxenus, The Dinner

Quoted in and based on recipes in

Roman Cookery, p. 148 to 149

1 15-oz can chickpeas

½ C.  parmesan

Sea salt

Pinch ground saffron

Rinse and drain the chickpeas, then toss with saffron,  cheese, and salt.




Lentil soup with leeks & savory

There is an excellent dish which is called lentil and barley soup, where barley and lentils are added not in equal quantities, but rather less barley, since barley would thicken the cooking and also gain a great deal in weight; lentils, on the other hand, when boiled swell up by but a small amount. The seasoning is of course the same for this food as for pearl barley, except that when savory or pennyroyal have been put in as an addition it becomes more pleasant and easier to digest, whilst pearl barley is unsuitable with these seasonings and suffices with just dill and leeks.

Galen, Oribasius

Quoted in and based on recipe in

Roman Cookery, p. 69

C. lentils

1 leek or scallion

1 bunch fresh dill

1 bunch fresh savory

Sea salt

In a large pot, combine the lentils with 3 cups of cold water. Soak overnight. Mince the greens. Heat the pot to a simmer, then add the greens and salt. Simmer for an hour, covered.




Celery (Alexanders) with raisin sauce

Lettuce is eaten for the most part raw, but when in summer they start to go to seed, they are first boiled in sweet water and served with olive oil, fish-sauce and vinegar, or with one of the pickles…

Galen, On Food and Diet, p. 138

Cretan alexanders are not unusual vegetables – but they are far more bitter and far hotter than celery, as well as possessing a certain aromatic quality… both eaten raw or cooked with a choice of olive oil and either fish-sauce, a dash of wine, or some vinegar.

Galen, On Food and Diet, p. 143

Carefully clean the alexanders so that it does not have any soil on it. Put it in vinegar and salt. After 30 days take out and peel off and throw away the skin. Chop up the inner part and put into a glass jar or a new earthenware pot and add a liquid, which should be made as detailed below. Take mint, raisins, and a small dried onion. Puree these with some parched meal and a little honey. When these have been properly pureed, combine with one part of sapa or defructum and one part of vinegar. Pour this into the jar and seal with a lid.

Columella, On Agriculture

Quoted in and based on recipe in

Roman Cookery, p. 143 to 144

1 bunch of celery

1 head lettuce

C. raisins

½ C. fresh mint, chopped

¼ C. red wine vinegar

½ C. olive oil

1 tsp. dried onions

1 tsp. toasted flour

1 tsp. honey

Pinch of sea salt

Rinse and dry the celery, then chop it roughly. Rinse and dry thoroughly the lettuce, and tear into bite-sized pieces. Rinse and dry the mint, slice, then toss with the celery and lettuce. In a blender, puree the raisins, vinegar, oil, onion, honey, flour, and salt, then pour over the salad and toss well.




Pork loin with figs & wine

Loin and pieces of meat: mix together in sufficient quantity with salt, coriander, and fig sap. Cook until it has thickened. Make a hot sauce in a pan: wine vinegar, one part of olive oil to two parts of sweet wine, a pinch of salt. When it has boiled, add a handful of oregano, skim off the froth, and sprinkle on some green stuff.

Heidelberg papyrus

Quoted in and based on recipe in

Roman Cookery, p. 126

4 lb. pork loin

8 dried figs

2 C. sweet sherry or wine

1 Tb. whole coriander

¼ C. fresh oregano, minced

¼ C. fresh parsley, minced

Olive oil

Sea salt, to taste

Heat the oven to 325 degrees. Grind the coriander seeds in a mortar. Puree the figs in a blender with a little water, a pinch of salt, and the coriander. Pat onto the shoulder and place in a large pan. Add the puree, the wine, and the herbs. Add enough water to bring the liquid ¼ up the height of the pork. Drizzle with a little oil and braise until meat is 165 to 170 degrees, about 2½ hours.



Polenta de Hordeo

Barley pilaf

…People mix in a mill 20 pounds of barley, 3 pounds of linseed, half a pound of coriander seed, and a cup of salt, toasting all these things beforehand.

Pliny, Natural History

Quoted in and based on recipe in

Roman Cookery, p. 41

1½ C. pearled barley

1 Tb. flax seeds

1 Tb. whole coriander seed

1 Tb. olive oil

Pinch salt

4 C. water

Heat a Dutch oven over medium heat, then add the coriander and flax seeds, stirring until just toasted – don’t let them burn! Remove from the pot and grind in a mortar or spice grinder.  Heat the oil in the pot, then add the barley and stir until it smells toasted.  Add the seeds, salt, and the water, then reduce to a simmer, cover, and let cook for an hour until tender.




Sesame cakes

Round biscuits from honey and toasted sesame seeds and olive oil.

Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists

Quoted in and based on recipe in

Roman Cookery, p. 154

C. sesame seeds

¼ C.  whole wheat flour

2 Tb. olive oil

3 Tb. honey

Toast the seeds carefully in a dry pan over medium heat just until golden brown.  Let cool, and grind in a spice grinder or whirl in a food processor until finely powdered. Combine all the ingredients and knead into a dough. Form into a disk and chill for half an hour to relax the dough. Roll out to ⅛-inch thickness on a lightly floured table, and use a cookie cutter to cut out 2-inch wide circles. Place on a greased baking sheet and bake at 350 degrees for 10 to 12 minutes. Remove to a cooling rack.




Honeyed ricotta cheese fried dough

Pastry balls should be made like this. Mix cheese with spelt flour in the same way. From this you can make as many pastry balls as you like. Put some fat in a bronze pot. Cook one or two pastry balls at a time, turning them frequently with two spatulas, remove when cooked, coat with honey,  sprinkle with poppy seeds and so serve.

Cato, On Agriculture

Quoted in and based on recipe in

Roman Cookery, p. 57

1 C. ricotta

C. flour

Olive oil for frying

¼ C. honey

1 tsp. whole poppy seeds

Stir the flour into the ricotta to form a dough. Form into 1-inch balls. Place the honey in a pan. Pour 1 inch of olive oil into another pan and heat to 350 degrees. Use a slotted spoon to lower the balls into the fat, and fry for about 5 minutes, rolling around gently in the oil. Remove and drain, then roll in the honey. Transfer to a plate or sheet and sprinkle with seeds.



Sources Cited for Dinner

Athenaeus The Deipnosophists [ca 200 A.D.] (Loeb Classical Library.) Heinemann, W., translators. Harvard University Press. London. 1927.

Cato On Agriculture  (ca. 50 B.C.) online at

The Classical Cookbook.  Dalby, Andrew and Grainger, Sally. The British Museum Press. London. 2000.

Siren Feasts: A History of Food and Gastronomy in Greece.  Dalby, Andrew. Routledge. London and New York. 1996.

Columella on Agriculture, Books I-IV, v-ix [ca 70 A.D.].  (Loeb Classical Library.) Forster, E.S. and Heffner, Edward H., translators. Harvard University Press. London. 1997.

Galen on Food and Diet [C. A.D. 200].  Grant, Mark. Routledge. London and New York. 2000.

Roman Cookery: Ancient Recipes for Modern Kitchens. Grant, Mark. Serif. London. 2000.

Courtesans and fishcakes: The Consuming Passions of Classical AthensDavidson, James. St. Martins Press. New York. 1998.

A Survey of Evidence For Feasting in Mycenaean Society. Wright, James. Hesperia (a quarterly journal on social archaeology, The American School of Classical Studies, Athens). Spring 2004.

The Mycenaean Feast: An Introduction. Wright. Hesperia. Spring 2004.