The College of Three Ravens


February 26, 2005


The Cauldron Bleu Cooks Guild

Barony of Thescorre

Maistres queux de bouche (Chief Cooks)

Lady Dubheasa inghean Dubgaill

Lady Khazima al-Zarqa' bint Hakim

Lunch Cooks

Lord Cadifor Cynan

Lord Ruaidri Gabhair

Maîtress d’hôtel (Butler)

THL Matilda Bosvyle de Ballacqua

Kitchen Staff

Lady Bryn Ni MacRose

Lord Caradwc Mendwr

milady Mairghread ni Stilbhard uu Coinn

Lord Phillipe the Shamed

Lord Carlo Gallucci

Lady Juliana de Beaujeau

Baroness Peregrine

Dame Katja Davidova Orlova Khazarina of Robakovna

We would like to thank Baroness Peregrine and Lady Lavena for allowing us the honor and privilege of creating and cooking our first feast at College of Three Ravens.

Thank you to all the wonderful cooks who have labored during the Cauldron Bleu Cooks Guild prep sessions for this feast.  All of the washing, chopping, stirring, and cooking was done with laughter and friendship.  You have made our task so much easier.

A HUGE thank you goes to Dame Katja for being our mentor.  Words cannot convey how much we appreciate your suggestions and support.  We appreciate your patience throughout the many emails and phone calls. Thank you to Lady Bryn for being our official food garnisher.  You are a very talented artist who has the gift of turning food into works of art.  Thank you also for your support, advice, and for arranging Cook's Guild prep sessions for us. Thank you to THL Matilda for being our butler.  Your dignified voice announcing our courses and directing the servers relieves a lot of our stress.

Thank you so very much for everyone who has labored in the kitchen today.  From squash choppers to dishwashers.  From bread bakers to clean up people.  We could not have done this feast without you!!

Lady Khazima al-Zarqa' bint Hakim and Lady Dubheasa inghean Dubgaill

Feast Mavens

Lunch Menu


Assorted butters (plain and honeyed)

Assorted nuts (almonds, pecans, pistachios, walnuts)

Assorted fruit (grapes for sure, others TBD)

Assorted cheeses (exact variety TBD)

Onion soup (beef broth version)

Onion soup (vegetable broth version)

Hard-boiled eggs


Dinner Menu

A 15th Century Mediterranean Meal

Sulla Tabella (On The Table)

Primo Corso (First Course)

Secondo Corso (Second Course)

Terzo Corso (Third Course)


From the Feast booklet for the Wedding Celebration of Grendel & Katja 09/06/03: These recipes were quite popular and we decided that they would make a nice basis for a lunch.-Ruaidri & Cadifor

Shrewsbury Cakes (A Delightfull Daily Exercise for ladies and Gentlewomen)

Take a quart of very fine flower, eight ounces of fine sugar beaten and sersed, twelve ounces of sweete butter, a Nutmegge grated, two or three spoonefuls of damaske rose-water, work all these together with your hands as hard as you can for the space of halfe an houre, then roule it in little round Cakes, about the thinknesse of three shillings one upon another, then take a silver Cup or glasse some foure or three inches over, and cut the cakes in them, then strowe some flower upon white papers & lay them upon them, and bake them in an Oven as hot as for Manchet, set up your lid till you may tell a hundredth, then you shall see them white, if any of them rise up clap them downe with some cleane thing, and if your Oven be not too hot set up your lid again, and in a quarter of an houre they will be baked enough, but in any case take heede your Oven be not too hot, for they must not looke browne but white, and so draw them foorth & lay them one upon another till they be could, and you may keep them halfe a yeare, the new baked are best.

We made a modern variant without rosewater: a basic Scottish shortbread. One of our batches also has ground nutmeg sprinkled on top.

½ C sugar

1 C butter (salted; if using unsalted butter add ¼ t salt)

3½ C flour

Sift flour with sugar, then cut in the butter (rose-water may be sprinkled over the resulting dough if desired). Knead until smooth and no sugar grains remain. Roll out ¼-½ inch thick and cut into desired shapes. Bake at 350 for 15 to 20 minutes.


Onion Pottage (The Accomplisht Cook)

Fry a good store of slic’t onions, then have a pipkin of boiling liquor over the fire, when the liquor boils put in the fryed onions, butter and all, with pepper and salt: being well stewed together, serve in on sops of French bread.

3 Tb. butter

6 to 7 onions

2 qt. homemade beef broth

1 tsp salt

½ tsp grains of paradise

½ C flour

Mince onions and sauté in the butter, adding flour as they brown, Bring the broth to a boil, then add to the onions. Season and cook over medium heat for 10 minutes.

(We are also preparing a vegan variant, using olive oil in place of the butter, and vegetable broth in place of the beef broth.)


Daily Bread (King Arthur Flour)

1 tsp active dry yeast

1 tsp granulated sugar

1 C warm water

2¼ to 2¾ C King Arthur Unbleached All-Purpose Flour

1½ tsp kosher salt

Proof yeast in water with sugar. Add 1 cup of the flour, stir gently for 10 seconds or until just combined, and let rest for 10 minutes. Add the salt and the remaining flour and stir the ingredients together well with a spoon, then knead it with your hands in the bowl for 8 to 10 minutes, until you've made a very slack dough. Place the dough in a large, lightly greased bowl, and cover it with lightly greased plastic wrap. Let rise until doubled (between 8 and 10 hours). Shape into flat round loaves and let rise at room temperature until doubled again, about an hour or so. Preheat the oven to 450°F about half an hour before you want to bake the bread. Bake the bread for 15 to 20 minutes, misting the inside of the oven with cold water from a clean plant mister three or four times during the first 5 to 8 minutes of baking, if you're after a very crisp crust. Remove the bread from the oven when it's golden brown, and cool it on a wire rack or bring it to the table and eat it immediately.


Olive Oil with fresh herbs, salt & pepper

½ C olive oil

2 Tbsp fresh sage, rosemary & thyme, minced

1 Tbsp freshly ground pepper

2 tsp salt

Blend herbs and spices together, pour oil over and serve.


Seasoned Lettuce (De Honesta Voluptate et Valetudine)

It is eaten both cooked or raw. Raw lettuce does not need to be washed if it is prepared in this way, for they are more healthful than when washed with water if put in a dish. Sprinkle them with ground salt and a little oil and pour a little more vinegar, and eat it right away. There are those who add a little mint and parsley to this preparation, so that it does not seem too bland; and so that there is not too much chill from the lettuce to harm the stomach, put cooked lettuce, with the water squeezed out, in a dish when you have dressed it with salt and oil and vinegar, and serve it to your guests. There are those who add a bit of cinnamon or pepper well-ground and sifted.

Salad (A Boke of Gode Cookery)

Tear the lettuce by hand into pieces and place in a large serving bowl. Sprinkle on a little salt and toss with vinegar & oil. Serve at once. OPTION: toss with a little freshly chopped mint & parsley.

2 C Greens

2 C Spinach

2 C Mixed fresh herbs (mint, chives, sage, rosemary, etc.)

½ C Oil

¼ C Vinegar

1 tsp Salt

2 tsp Pepper

Wash and toss greens together. Whisk oil, vinegar, salt and pepper to blend. Gently toss with greens.


To make powdered hypocras (Le Mènagier de Paris)

To make a lot of good hypocras, take an once of cinamonde, known as a long tube cinnamon, a knob of ginger, and an equal amount of galangal, pounded well together, and then take a livre of good sugar; pound this all together and moisten it with a gallon of the best Beaune wine you can get, and let it steep for an hour or two. Then strain it through a clot bag several times so it will be very clear.

Spiced Wine (The Medieval Kitchen)

4 cups good red wine (or dry white wine, such as sauvignon blanc -- we are using 4 cups of white grape juice)

¾ cup sugar

For the hypocras powder

1 rounded teaspoon ground cinnamon

1 rounded teaspoon ground ginger, or a small piece of dried gingerroot

1 small piece of dried galangal or dried gingerroot

Grind the spices if necessary, and mix with the sugar in a glass or stainless steel bowl. Gradually stir in the wine; mix well to combine. Let the mixture stand for about two hours, stirring occasionally.

Strain the wine through a double layer of cheesecloth; repeat several times until clear. Store in a corked bottle in the refrigerator for a few days before drinking.


Ravieles (Two Anglo-Norman Culinary Collections)

Take fine flour and sugar and make pasta dough; take good cheese and butter and cream them together; then take parsley, sage, and shallots, chop them finely and put them in the filling. Put the boiled ravieles on a bed of grated cheese and cover them with more grated cheese and then reheat them.

Cheese Ravioli (Katja's recipes webpage)

2 C flour

3 eggs

1 lb. ricotta

1 egg, beaten

2 T softened butter

1 minced garlic bulb

2 T minced parsley

1 T minced sage

1/4 C grated Reggiano Parmiggiano

melted butter, extra grated Reggiano

Make pasta dough and dry. Drain the ricotta. Blend with the eggs, butter, herbs. Fill square raviolis. Boil briefly, then serve with melted butter and grated cheese.©1999 Chris Adler


Polli infinocchiati (Frammento di un libro di cuicina del sec. XIV)

Take the chickens, cut them up, fry them, and when they are fried add the quantity of water you prefer; then take “beards” of fennel, “beards” of parsely, and almonds that have not been skinned; and chop these things well, mix them with the liquid from the chickens, and boil everything, them pass theoufh a sieve. Add it to the chickens, and add the best spices you van get.

Chicken with Fennel (The Medieval Kitchen)

1 free-range chicken

2/3 cup unblanched almonds

A handful of fennel or dill leaves

A handful of parsley

2 cups water

Scant ½ teaspoon of fine spices

2 tablespoons lard or oil


Cut the chicken into serving pieces and pat dry. Melt the lard in a casserole over medium-high heat and brown the chicken. When it is golden brown, add the water and salt to taste. Lower the heat and simmer, covered, for 40 to 45 minutes or until tender.

Meanwhile, wash and thoroughly dry the herbs. Grind the almonds finely in a blender, and then add the herbs and blend to a paste. Remove the chicken from the casserole and keep it warm in a very low oven, covered loosely with aluminum foil.

Add the almond mixture to the casserole and reduce over medium heat until the sauce has thickened. Arrange the chicken on a serving platter and strain the sauce over the chicken. Sprinkle with the spices to taste and serve.


Garroites (Le Menagier de Paris)

Item, on All Saints, take carrots as many as you wish, and when they are well cleaned and chopped in pieces, cook them like the turnips. (Carrots are red roots which are sold at the Halles in baskets, and each basket costs one blanc.)

Carrots & Parsnips in honey (A Boke of Gode Cookery)

"The Goodman of Paris (a 14th Century home manual written by an elderly bridegroom), in giving planting instructions to the Menagier's young bride, mentions many different flowers, vegetables, herbs, and fruits that are to be contained within their domestic garden. The list of vegetables features beet, leek, cabbage, parsley, bean, pea, spinach, lettuce, pumpkin, turnip, radish, & parsnip. In addition are other vegetables that the Menagier includes in his cooking instructions, which were purchased and not grown: carrots (which were specifically mentioned as being acquired in the market), shallots, cress, & garlic. The Menagier's recipes for vegetables are typical of the time period: simple and not nearly as numerous as his instructions for preparing meat and fish."

We are preparing the carrots according to the instructions from Le Menagier de Paris, which has them boiled until tender, then cooked in honey. We decided to use a mixture of carrots and parsnips, as they are similar in taste, and both were redily used. We also added Fine Spice and Toasted Almonds. -- Khazi and Dubheasa




Fne Spice

Almonds, chopped and toasted


Specie dolce per assay cosse bone e fine (Libro di cuicina del secolo XI)

Toy una onza de pevere e una de cinamo e una de zenzevro e mezzo quarto de garofali e uno quarto de zaferanno.

Le meior specie dolze fine che tu fay se vuoi per lampreda in crosta e per altri boni pessi d’aque dolze che se faga in crosto e per fare bono brodetto e bon savore. Toi uno quarto de garofali e una onza de bon zenzevro e toy una onza de cinamo leto e toy arquanto folio e tute queste specie fay pestare insiema caxa como te piaxe, e se ne vo’ fare, più, toy le cosse a questa medessima raxone et è meravigliosamente bona.

Fine Spice Mixture (The Medieval Kitchen)

Take an onza of pepper and one of cinnamon adn one of ginger, and half a quarter [onza] of cloves and a quarter of saffron.

2 rounded tablespoons freshly ground black pepper

2 rounded tablespoons ground cinnamon

2 rounded tablespoons ground ginger

1 ½ tablespoons saffron threads, loosely measured, crushed to a powder in a mortar or with your fingers

¾ teaspoon ground cloves

Mix all the spices together.


Pois nouveaux (Le Ménagier de Paris)

As to new peas, sometimes they be cooked with sewe of meat and brayed parsley to make a green pottage and that is for a meat day; and on a fish day, they be cooked in milk with ginger and saffron therein.

Peas (A Boke of Gode Cookery)

1 lb. peas

4 cups pork or beef broth or Gode Broth (made without bread crumbs)

2 bunches fresh parsley leaves, diced

Bring peas and broth to a boil; add parsley, reduce heat and simmer until tender. The peas may then be drained or left in all or some of the broth for serving.


Assatura bovina (Tractatus de modo preparandi et condiendi omnia cibaria)

Assatura bouina, cum costis iuxta dorsum acceptum, simpliciter in ueru assatur et cum bullito pipere administratur.

Roast of beef, taken from the ribs near the spine, is simply spit-raosted and served with boiled pepper.

Roast Beef (The Medieval Kitchen)

1 rib of roast of beef, bone-in, about 2 ¼ to 3 pounds

2 tablespoons black peppercorns

10 tablespoons (5 fl. Ounces) water


Trim the meat and fix it to the spit of a rotisserie, making sure it is well balanced on the spit, or place it on a rack in a broiling pan. Roast on the rotisserie, or cook under the broiler, not too close to the heat, for 20 to 30 minutes (or to an internal temperature of 120 degrees F/48 degrees C), turning from time to time.

Meanwhile, crush the peppercorns in a mortar or grind them coarsely in a spice grinder. Add them to the water, bring to a boil, and simmer for several minutes. Add salt to taste. When the beef is done, let it rest for at least 5 minutes in a warm place (such as on the open door of the oven), so that the juices will be evenly distributed. Carve into even slices, sprinkle with salt and serve with the pepper infusion.


Agliata pavonazza (Libro de arte coquinaria)

Sequirai l’ordine del capitolo sopra scripto, excepto che non bisogna gli metti brood, ma pigliarai dell’uva negra et con le mani la romperai molto bene in una pignatta, o altro vaso; et faralo bollire per meza hora; poi collerai questo mosto, col quale distemperarai l’agliata; et il simele si pò fare con le cerase. Et questa agliata si pò dare al tempo de carne, o di pesce, como si vole.

Follow the instructions in the previous chapter, except that you must not add broth, but take black grapes nd crush them very well with your hands into a pot or other container; boil them for half an hour; then strain this grape must, with which you wwill moisten the garlic sauce; the same can be done with cherries. This garlic sauce can be served on meat days or fish dys, as desired.

Pink Garlic Sauce (The Medieval Kitchen)

1 generous pound of red grapes (we used 1 cup of grape-cherry juice)

½ cup almonds

3 cloves garlic, peeled

¼ cup fresh breadcrumbs


Stem the grapes, put them into a stainless steel or other non-reactive pan and crush them thoroughly with your hands. Alternatively, you can puree them coarsely in a food processor. Bring to the boil and simmer for 30 minutes, then strain, pressing to extract the maximum possible juice.

Meanwhile, blanch the almonds and dry them thoroughly. Grind them in a mortar or in a blender, along with the garlic. Soak the breadcrumbs in about ½ cup of the reduced grape juice and, when softened, whisk until smooth; blend in the almond-garlic mixture. Whisk in additional grape juice until the mixture forms a creamy sauce. (The entire preparation could also be done in the blender.) Check for salt before serving.


Poivre jaunet ou aigret (Le Ménagier de Paris)

Take ginger and saffron, then take grilled bread soaked in meat broth (or even better, meatless cabbage water) and boil; when it boils, add vinegar.

Yellow Sauce (The Medieval Kitchen)

1 generous slice country bread, crust removed

10 tablespoons (5 fl. ounces) meat broth or cabbage cooking liquid, or water (we used vegetable broth)

3 tablespoons good white wine vinegar

½ teaspoon ground ginger

1 pinch saffron threads


Grill or toast the bread, and, in a small saucepan, leave it to soak in the broth. When it is very soft, mash it thoroughly, add the spices, and bring to the boil. When it comes to the boil, add the vinegar and simmer until thickened. Add salt to taste and adjust the seasoning if necessary. For a smoother result, you can force this sauce through a fine strainer. To serve, spoon over the meat or fish.


Froumentée (Le Ménagier de Paris)

First, you should hull your wheat as is done to maek hulled barley; for ten platefuls you need a livre of hulled wheat, which is sometimes found at the spice merchant’s already hulled at a cost of one blanc per livre. Clean it and cook it in water in the evening, and leave it overnight, covered, near the fire, in warm water, then drain and clean it. Then boil some milk in a pan, and do not stir it becasue it will curdle: and immediately, without waiting, pt it in a pot that has no metallic bronze odor; and whenit is cold, skim the cream from the top so that it does not make the frumentary curdle, and then bring the milk to the boil again with a little wheat, but hardly any wheat; then take egg youlks and add the – for each sextier [about two gallons or 7½ liters] of milk, a hundred eggs – then take the boiling milk and beat the eggs with the milk, then remove the pot [from the fire], cast in the eggs, and mix; and if you see that it is about to curdle, put the pot into a basin full of water. On fish days, use milk, on meat days, meat broth; and you can add saffron if the eggs do nt make it yellow enough; also, half a knob of ginger.

Wheat/Barley Porridge (The Medieval Kitchen)

7oz wheat berries; about 1C (we used ½C craked wheat & ½C pearl barley)

4C chicken broth (we used vegetable broth)

2 egg yolks

¼tsp ground ginger


A day in advance, put the wheat berries in a heavy pan with 3 cups of salted water. Bring to the boil, and simer for about an hour, or until the water is nearly absorbed and the wheat berries begin to burst open. Cover the pan and leave the wheat in a warm place, such as on a radiator or near a range-top piolot light, overnight. The next day, drain the wheat berries, discarding any remaining water. Pick through the wheat for any foreign bodies, and remove them. (This was unnecessary due to the use of cracked wheat and pearl barley)

Put the wheat and the broth into a heavy pan, bring to the boil, reduce the heat, and simmer for about 2½ or 3 hours, until the grain and liquid begin to meld into a very thick porridge. (We put the barley in the broth and simmered for 30 min, then added the wheat and simmered for an additional 25-20 min.)

Check for salt and stir in the ginger. Remove from the heat.

Beat the egg yoilks in a small bowl, then stir in a ladleful of porridge. When thoroughly blended, add the egg mixture to the pot and , still off the heat, stir to blen. Serve hot.


Pour faire une tourte (Le Menagier de Paris)

To make a tourte, tkae four handfuls of chard, two handfuls of parsely, a handful of cheveril, a sprig of fennel, and two handfuls of spinach; and trim them and wash them in cold water, them chop them very fine; then crush the two kinds of cheese, thatis, soft and medium, and mix in some eggs, both yolks and whites, and beat them into the cheese; then put the herbs into a mortar and pound everything together, and also put in some fine powder [spices]. Or instead, pund two knobs of gingerroot in a mortar and them pound in your cheeses, eggs, and herbs, and then sprinkle some aged hard cheese, or other cheese, grated atop the herbs; and take it to the oven; and have tart made and eat it hot.

Vegetable Cheese Tarts (The Medieval Kitchen)

For the pate brisee (We have elected to not use a crust for these tourtes)

1 ½ cups flour

7 tablespoons butter

3 tablespoons water, approximately

½ teaspoon salt

For the filling

7 ounces chard leaves

7 ounces spinach

A handful of chervil

A handful of parsley

A handful of dill or fennel fronds

8 ounces cream cheese, softened

5 ounces moderately rich, rather mild cheese such as raclette, or a very young tomme de Savoie or other tomme

2 eggs, beaten

1 teaspoon fine spices

1 teaspoon ground ginger

3 ounces freshly grated Parmesan or Swiss Gruyere cheese (about ½ cup parmesan or ¾ cup gruyere, lightly packed)


An hour or two in advance, prepare the pate brisee as follows. Cut the butter into small pieces, and rub or cut it into the flour until the mixture has the consistency of sawdust. Dissolve the salt in half of the water, and add to the flour mixture. Combine quickly with your fingertips, without overworking, just until the dough comes together. If necessary, add more water as required. Form into a thick disk, wrap in plastic wrap or waxed paper, and leave to rest in the refrigerator before using.

Wash the greens and herbs in several changes of cold water. Remove the stems and discard. Finely chop all the leaves and dry thoroughly in a towel, pressing to remove as much moisture as possible. Preheat the oven to 425 degrees F. In a bowl, beat the cream cheese with a rubber spatula or wooden spoon until smooth, grate the raclette or tome into the bowl, and add the chopped greens. Mix until smooth, then add the eggs, spice mixture, and ginger. Add salt to taste.

Roll out the dough and line a deep 9-inch (22-cm) tart pan. Line the dough with a sheet of aluminum foil and fill with baking weights or dried beans. Bake the shell for 8 minutes; remove the fold and weights and bake for another 5 minutes. Add the filling, sprinkle evenly with the grated cheese, and bake for an hour, or until the top is golden brown and the bottom thoroughly baked. If you find that the tourte is browning too quickly, lower the heat to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C).


Congordes (Le Viandier de Guillaume Tirel dit Taillevent)

For squash, peel them and cut them into slices. Remove the seeds if there are any and cook them in water in a pan, then drain them and rinse in cold water; squeeze them and chop them finely; mix with some beef and other meat broth and add cow’s milk, and mix half a dozen egg yolks, put through a sieve, into the broth and milk; on fast days [use] the cooking water from [dried] peas, or almond milk, and butter.

Squash Soup (The Medieval Kitchen)

5 ½ pounds winter squash or pumpkin

4 cups almond milk made with a little more than 4 cups of water and 2/3 cup almonds

4 tablespoons (2 ounces) butter

Salt to taste

Peel the squash and remove the seeds. Cut it into 1/-nch (2-cm) chunks and cook in boiling salted water for about 10 minutes. The squash must remain firm and must not fall apart; you will need to be vigilant, as cooking time will vary with the variety of squash or pumpkin you use.

Drain, and press gently in a sieve to remove excess water. Chop to a coarse puree with a knife or in a food processor. Place the puree into a saucepan, add the almond milk and butter, and bring to the boil. Check for salt before serving.


Gauffres (Le Ménagier de Paris)

Wafers (Gauffres) be made in five ways. By one method you beat up the eggs in a bowl, then add salt & wine & throw in flour, & mix them, & then put them on two irons, little by little, each time as much paste as the size of a leche or strip of cheese, & press them between the two irons & cook on both sides; & if the iron doth not separate easily from the paste, grease it beforehand with a little cloth moistened in oil or fat. The second method is like to the first, but you put in cheese, that is to wit you spread out the paste as though to make a tart or pasty, & then you add the cheese in leches in the middle & cover the two ends; this the cheese remaineth between the two pastes & is this set between two irons. The third method is that of Strained Waffles & they be called strained for this reason only, that the paste is clearer & it as it were boiled clear, after the aforesaid manner; & onto it one scatters grated cheese; & all is mixed together. – The fourth method is flour made into a paste with water, salt, wine without either eggs or cheese. Item, the wafer makers make another kind called big sticks, which be made of flour made into a paste with eggs & powdered ginger beaten together, & then made of like size & in like manner to chitterlings, between two irons.

Pizzelles (A Boke of Gode Cookery)

24 eggs

4 C sugar

1.5 lb. butter

8 C flour

½ tsp salt

ginger extract, lemon extract, and anise extract. Shelley Stone©2000.


Frutte secche, Pour faire Orengat, Dragees (Le Ménagier de Paris)

Divide the peel of one orange into five quarters & scrape with a knife to remove the white part inside, then put them to soak in good sweet water for nine days, & change the water every day, then cook them in good water just till boiling, & when this happens, spread them on a cloth & let them get thoroughly dry, then put them in a pot with enough honey to cover them, & boil on a low fire & skim, & when you believe the honey is cooked, (to test if it is cooked, have some water in a bowl, & let drip into this one drop of the honey, & if it spread, it is not cooked; & if the drop of honey holds together in the water without spreading out it is cooked;) & then you must remove your orange peel, & make one layer with it, & sprinkle with ginger powder, then another layer, & sprinkle etc., & so on, & leave it a month or more then eat.

Candied Orange Peel (Katja's recipe webpage)

3 oranges

2 C honey or sugar

powdered ginger

Rinse and peel the fruit. Bring the peels to a boil in a saucepan with 1 pint of cold water. Boil for 10 minutes, drain off the water, add a pint of fresh water. Repeat this process twice. Drain, add another quart of water and simmer for 20 minutes. Drain, cook 2 Cups water and 2 C honey down to a syrup. Lower the heat and add the peel. Cook until soft ball stage, and cool in a bed of sugar or on a rack.©1999 Chris Adler

Please note that this candied orange peel recipe specifies honey, while ones in later-period English and French resources specify sugar. It’s interesting just how much of an influence sea transportation during the Age of Exploration had on cuisine – sugar transported west via overland merchants in earlier centuries was far more expensive, and thus used in much smaller quantities in cooking. --Katja


Dragees (Le Ménagier de Paris)

First, for five hundred walnuts, take a pound of mustard-seed & half a pound of anise, a quatrain & a half of fennel, a quatrain & a half of coriander, a quatrain & a half of caraway seed, which is a seed eaten in dragees…

Candied Seeds (Katja's recipe webpage)

1 cup fine sugar

½ C coriander, anise, caraway, and fennel seeds

½ C hot water

Cook a sugar syrup to the soft ball stage. Spoon some over dry seeds and stir them around with a fork. Keep adding syrup and stirring the seeds to build up layers of candying. Let cool between layers.



Redon, Odile, Francoise Sabban, and Silvano Serventi The Medieval Kitchen: Recipes from France and Italy. Translated from French by Edward Schneider, 2000.

A Boke of Gode Cookery, found online at

Katja's recipes webpage