Comparing and Choosing Medieval Cookbooks

by THL Katja Davidova Orlova Khazarina

While at a wonderful food history convention in January 2000, I spent several hours drooling over a merchant's huge display of books on Medieval and Renaissance food. That, coupled with a roundtable discussion of some of the classic resources and the new offerings, made me think about how lucky feastocrats are today to have so many book from which to choose. However, it also made me think how confusing and expensive this flood of resources could be to a new cook. How would they decide what to buy first? Which books are worthwhile, which are too confusing right now, and which are downright bad?

When the SCA began over 30 years ago, the average SCAdian had precious few sources for research and reenactment of period food or feasts. In general, only those who worked in academia or museums had access to the original cookbooks from our period of study. There was no Internet or on-line postings of these resources, obviously, and bookstores did not carry many books on the culinary history of the Middle Ages – therefore, SCA merchants didn’t have many either.

Today, there are scores of reprints and translations of period cookbooks, and dozens of books on the history of not only English and French cooking of the Middle Ages and Renaissance but also Arabic, Anglo-Saxon, Polish, Russian, and Mediterranean cuisines of that time period. and other on-line book sellers offer some of these books, and most of them are available (via mail order and on-line) through specialty booksellers such as Poison Pen Press and Acanthus Books. This class reviews the options now commonly available to kitcheners and food researchers.

Fifteen years ago, a group that wasn't doing period cooking could claim, with considerable justification, that learning to do period cooking would be a lot of work, and although it would be nice to have tasty period food at their feasts, other objectives had higher priority. At this point, thanks largely to the Net, any group that wants period recipes can find lots of them, for free, with about half an hour spent searching online. Anyone who wants to learn to do period cooking can find extensive primary and secondary sources online, can join the Cooks List and ask questions of other people who have been doing it for a long time, and can, with a little more effort, find classes to take, certainly at Pennsic and, with reasonable luck, at kingdom teaching events.

Duke Sir Master Cariadoc of the Bow

Types of Sources

First, let’s review the different levels of resources:

= Hugh Plat’s Delightes for Ladies

=Terence Scully’s translation of Chiquart’s On Cooking

=Constance Hieatt’s Pleyn Delit; Bridget Ann Henisch' Fast and Feast

For the purposes of documentation, the best resource is a primary one. Since access to reprints or facsimiles of primary sources is no longer arduous, even beginner cooks can pick up one or two for their research and recipe experimentation. However, primary sources (and even secondary ones) are generally too intimidating for beginners – what does "kerve ynto peces" mean? How do you "seeth it well"? Although some SCAdians are familiar enough with cooking ratios and methods to be able to dive right into using an oddly-worded recipe with no ingredient amounts or cooking times, most inexperienced cooks want a little more instruction than that. Secondly, unless the cook knows a foreign language and can translate the Medieval form of that language, they are limited to using the texts in English or English translations.

Therefore, it is natural for most beginner cooks to start with tertiary books. These give the beginner a feeling for the ingredients, methods, and concepts typical of Medieval (not modern) cooking. For instance, they will learn to use bread crumbs instead of a roux to thicken soups, and they’ll discover that the Doctrine of Humors influenced the Medieval cook to use certain sauces for certain meats.

Several tertiary sources are extremely good – Pleyn Delit and The Medieval Kitchen come to mind – since they include the original recipes and thus allow the cook to compare the redaction with the original or to even redact the original themselves. Good tertiary sources often include a bibliography of sources, footnotes, a recipe index, photographs or illustrations, and a decent introduction or text on the history of Medieval food and cuisine. Good introductory material places the recipes in historical context and explains how and why the author researched/translated the book, thus lending the author academic credibility. Several good tertiary sources also include a glossary of common Medieval cooking terms or descriptions of how to make ubiquitous Medieval ingredients such as almond milk or poudre douce.

Evaluation of Sources

However, be careful with tertiary sources! The recipes and text can be skewed by the author’s bias. Common examples are an English interpretation of French cooking or a Victorian view of Medieval life. Even if the information isn’t slanted, it can still be inaccurate – it is not uncommon for the original text to contain typographical errors, such as repeated or skipped lines of text or even lines printed backwards.

Some tertiary sources contain useful indexes, bibliographies, introductory text, or illustrations, but have horridly inaccurate or untested redactions – Fabulous Feasts is a prime example! This is a book which SCAdians used religiously in the early years of our Society either because they didn’t realize how bad the redactions were, or because they didn’t have many other choices from which to work.

How do you know if the redactions are bad? The use of baking powder, vanilla extract, cocoa, pineapple, or allspice are good indications that the recipe is NOT accurate, since those are all ingredients which weren’t available to Medieval cooks. If the book contains Worcestershire sauce, then it is probably a ‘70s book which is using that as a cheap and common substitute for liquamen. (Today, we know that cooks can use Thai fish sauce, which is much closer to the ancient Roman ingredient.)

One side note: the inclusion of New World ingredients like turkey, potatoes, and tomatoes does not necessarily mean that the redaction is bad. These ingredients were imported to the Old World in the 15th and 16th Century and are in VERY late period cookbooks, so the redaction could be completely accurate. However, they are pretty much outside our period of study.

Another indication of a redaction’s quality requires a familiarity with cooking techniques and recipes – does it look as though that redaction really needs two tablespoons of pepper, or would a modern version of that recipe use only two *teaspoons*? If you’ve made modern cookie recipes, then you can judge whether the proportion of liquid and dry ingredients in a redaction will create a batter… or a dough. Some factors are due to the size or composition of Medieval ingredients. For example, some original recipes contain what we would think to be far too many eggs – until you realize that Medieval chicken eggs were much smaller than our modern ones.

So how do you choose which cookbooks to buy, if you’re not just looking at price? Ask yourself what you want to accomplish – are you a scholar who wants to research Medieval cuisine and serving practices, or do you dream of being a Medieval cook? If you simply want to be "book smart," then you should invest in good books on the history of food in the Middle Ages. If you want to recreate Medieval feasts, then you need to buy primary sources so that you can redact your own recipes.

If you want to be a kitchener or feastocrat, what’s your level of cooking experience? Are you the kind of cook who needs detailed instructions and precise measurements, or do you like to take an unfamiliar recipe and wing it? The former will likely want to start with a good tertiary source, while the latter will probably enjoy sitting down with a primary source and the OED (Oxford English Dictionary) or a foreign language dictionary to puzzle out the recipe. You’ll also need to learn how to cook for hundreds of people…

Another point: some of the originals aren’t necessarily cookbooks. Le Menagier de Paris, The Domostroi, and The English Hous-wife are guides for household management which contain recipes in addition to directions on how to run the household staff, buy the fowl, and when to brew the mead. These give the reader an excellent overview of how cooking fits into the whole picture of Medieval homelife.

Available Sources: In The Beginning

In the society’s first decade or so, feastocrats relied heavily on general cooking-history books. Early SCA group cookbooks, such as those printed by Thescorre’s Cauldron Bleu and the Madrone Cooks Guild, reflect the level of knowledge of that time. Many of the following books are now out of print:

Apicius: Cookery & Dining in Imperial Rome, translation by Joseph Vehling, 1977, Dover

Professor Milham, translator of the new Platina, says that this isn’t a great translation of the 1st Century Roman classic, but the Dover version is one of the only ones currently in print and it is relatively easy for a non-linguist to read. (The out-of-print 1958 Flowers edition is a better translation.

Cooking Through the Ages, J.R. Ainsworth-Davis, 1931, J. M. Dent and Sons.

A general history of cookery.

Cooks, Gluttons, and Gourmets, Elizabeth Watson, 1962, Doubleday and Company.

Really horrid recipes and inaccurate historical information.

The Delectable Past, Esther Aresty, 1964, Simon and Schuster.

A survey of the development of period food and cookbooks. Includes recipe adaptations with modern ingredients; no original recipes cited.

Dining with William Shakespeare, Madge Lorwin, 1976.

Contains original recipes from Plat, Dawson, Markham, etc. The redactions have modern ingredients, such as vanilla and baking soda. However, some recipes are from unpublished primary Elizabethan sources, so use the originals!

The English Medieval Feast, William Edward Mead, 1967, Barnes and Noble.

Was considered the basic reference work for Society cooking, according to the author of How to Cook Forsoothly. However, it's very negative about life in the Middle Ages, and it's a boring read.

Fabulous Feasts, Madeleine Pelner Cosman, 1976, George Braziller Inc.

This book has several good chapters on the setting and serving of Medieval English feasts, subtleties, and other characteristics of Medieval food. HOWEVER, the recipes don’t have any cited sources and don't appear to be tested, since they don’t have correct proportions or timing.

A Fifteenth Century Cookry Boke, John Anderson, ed., 1962, Charles Scribner's Sons.

Contains original recipes and a glossary of "obscure" terms.

Food and Drink in Britain, C. Anne Wilson, 1973, Academy of Chicago Publishers

General history of English cuisine with many illustrations by a reputable author.

Food by Appointment, Michele Brown, 1977, Elm Tree Books.

Chapters on each of England’s rulers, starting with William the Conqueror. Contains a recipe index but no bibliography and no original recipes.

Food in England, Dorothy Hartley, 1954, Little, Brown

Another general history book of English cuisine.

Food in History, Reay Tannahill, 1973, Stein & Day

A *very* general history of world cuisine.

Good Cheer, Frederick Hackwood, 1968, Singing Tree Press.

A book on "old-fashioned style" which includes general material on Medieval food.

The Horizon Cookbook, William Harlan Hale, 1968, Doubleday & Company.

Good illustrations and discussion of Medieval food and feast preparation. Interesting menus and recipes from all over the world, but no original recipes and no documentation for the menus.

How to Cook Forsoothly, Katrine de Baillie du Chat, 1979, Raymond’s Quiet Press.

Written by a laurel, this book contains information about Medieval food based on Fabulous Feasts. The original recipes appear to be from Forme of Cury, but aren’t directly cited as such. Many of the redactions use modern ingredients.

Kitchen and Table, Colin Clair, 1964, Abelard-Schuman.

Contains chapters on Medieval table service, cooking methods and terms.

Pleyn Delit, Constance Hieatt, et. al., 1976 (revised 2nd edition published in 1996), University of Toronto Press.

EXCEPTIONAL book on early English cooking for the beginner cook – originals and redactions from Curye on Inglysch. Great introduction with sample menus and a table of weights and measures.

Sallets, Humbles & Shrewsbury Cakes, Ruth Anne Beebe, 1976, David R. Godine, Publisher.

Good introduction on Elizabethan food. Chapters of Tudor redactions on "flesh, fish, fowle, egges, pyes, sallets, sweetes." Original recipes are printed with the redactions, and are taken from Dawson, Markham, and Murrell, but are not specified for each menu. Sample menus, glossary, recipe index.

Seven Centuries of English Cooking, Maxime de la Falaise, 1973, Grove Press.

Contains one chapter of recipes from the 14th to 17th Centuries taken from Forme of Cury and Two Fifteenth Century Cookbooks.

To The King’s Taste, Lorna Sass, 1975, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Dishes from the time of Richard II, based on food references in Chaucer and Shakespeare. Sass’ recipes have odd ratios, which leads me to think that she didn’t test all of them. Other cooks tell me that they find this a great book, so choose for yourself.

To The Queen’s Taste, Lorna Sass, Met, 1976.

Sass’ second book contains Elizabethan recipes taken from Markham, Plat, and Dawson’s books. The originals are printed before the redactions. Once again, she adapted them for modern cooking and tastes, so the recipes contain modern ingredients, and the recipes don't seem to be tested.

Two Fifteenth Century Cookery Books, Thomas Austin, 1964, Oxford University Press.

Original recipes and a limited glossary.

Available Sources: the Next Generation

During the mid-1980s to the early 1990s, Falconwood Press published several reprints of period cookbooks, such as Gervase Markham’s The English Hous-wife (1649), Francis de laVarenne’s The French Cook (1653), John Murrell’s A delightful daily exercise for Ladies and Gentlewomen (1621), and Thomas Dawson’s The Good Huswifes Jewell (1596).

In 1987, Duke Sir Master Cariadoc of the Bow’s self-published A Collection of Medieval and Renaissance Cookbooks contained photocopies and translations of major period works, such as Le Menagier de Paris, Two Fifteenth Century Cookbooks, Hugh Plat’s Delightes for Ladies, The Closet of Sir Kenelme Digbie… Opened, The Forme of Cury, Le Viander de Taillevant, and An Anonymous Andalusian Cookbook of the 13th Century. Many of these works were copied four pages per page, so the collection’s resulting print was extremely small. Also, some of the photocopied pages were somewhat blurry, which increased the difficulty of reading. However, the collection allowed SCA cooks to read for themselves the original recipes rather than relying on the interpretations in modern books. For many years, this collection was the only easy source for these cookbooks. And it's STILL only $20!

In the mid-1990s, a plethora of reprints and modern books containing excellent redactions became widely available, including sources previously only available in Cariadoc’s collection. The following is a selection of these books:

Primary/Secondary Sources (no redactions):

The Accomplisht Cook, Robert May, 1685.

Considered to be the first professional cookbook. Has over 2,000 recipes.

A Closet for Ladies and Gentlewomen, 1608.

An anonymous work which focuses on sweetmeats and sugarplate for banquets. Very similar to A Book of Fruits & Flowers, 1653. Lots of great confit and candying recipes.

The Closet of The Eminently Learned Sir Kenelme Digbie, Kt., Opened, J. Stevenson & P. Davidson, editors., 1999, Prospect Books.

Introductory material and recipes for 16th Century English mead, baked goods, and dishes. This knight gathered his favorite recipes during his travels, and the collection was published posthumously.

Curye on Inglysch, edited by Constance Hieatt & Sharon Butler, 1985, Oxford University Press.

Introductory material on 14th Century English cooking.

Domostroi, Carolyn Johnston Pouncy, editor and translator, 1994, Cornell University Press.

Introductory material on Russian life of the early 17th Century upper-class – and it’s currently the only source for late Medieval Russian food.

The Good Huswifes Jewell, Thomas Dawson, 1596.

An English household manual of the late 16th Century written for non-noble housewives.

Du Fait de Cuisine (On Cookery), Chiquart Amiczo.

An authority on 15th Century French cooking, written by the chief cook to the Duke of Savoy.

The English Hous-wife, Gervase Markham, edited by Michael Best, 1986, McGill/Queens Press.

First published in 1615, this is an extensive guide for the mistress of the house, including the preparation of medical remedies and cosmetics, cookery, brewing, weaving, spinning, dyeing, making butter and cheese, and care of livestock.

The Jewish Manual, 1846.

This is the first Jewish cookbook published in English. It's out-of-period, but is helpful in showing the English and French influence on this cuisine.

A Book of Fruits & Flowers, 1653. Introduction and glossary by C. Anne Wilson. Facsimile published 1984, Prospect Books Ltd.

A compilation of recipes for cookery, confectionary, preserves, and medicines, made from fruits, flowers, nuts, herbs, etc. EXCELLENT instructions for making syrup of violets!

Lady Borlase’s Receiptes Book, edited by David Schoonover, 1999, University of Iowa Press.

Facsimile of a 1665 English work with recipes on meat dishes, preserving, and sweetmeats.

Life of Luxury, Archestratus, translated by John Wilkins, 1995, Prospect Books.

This 4th Century BC Greek work is among the earliest known Western cookbooks.

Martha Washington’s Booke of Cookery, Karen Hess, 1981, Columbia University Press.

Introductions and indexes to separate books on English cookery and sweetmeats. Includes the history of this 1600s manuscript, transcription notes.

The Medieval Health Handbook: Tacuinum Sanitatis. Luisa Arano. George Brazillier Inc. Hardcover ed., 1976; paperback reprint, 1992.

Covers 14th-15th Century manuscripts on foods, herbs, and health. Originally from the Greeks, via Arabic sources, and translated into Latin. Great illustrations of Renaissance cooking methods.

A Medieval Home Companion: Housekeeping in the Fourteenth Century. Tania Bayard, trans. & ed., Harper Collins, 1991.

Abridged version of Le Menangier de Paris (The Goodman of Paris).

On the Observance of Foods, Anthimus, edited by Mark Grant, 1996, Prospect Books.

A Greek doctor who was exiled among 6th Century Franks wrote this letter about the food in his new land – it’s the ancestor of French cuisine.

Platina: On Right Pleasure, (De Honesta) translated by Mary Ellen Milham, 1998, Arizona Press.

A side-by-side translation with the original 15th Century Latin text. Contains an extremely detailed list of works cited and a thorough index.

Receipts of Pastry & Cookery for the use of his scholars, Edward Kidder, 1998? University of Iowa Press.

Facsimile copy of 1720 English text. I have no other information on this book.

Sabina Welser’s Cookbook (Das Kochbuch der Sabina Welserin), translation by Valoise Armstrong, 1998.

Translation of a 1553 work, but does not include the original German text. Has a brief glossary and selected bibliography. The original is online at

The Viandier of Taillevent, translated by Terence Scully, 1988, University of Ottowa Press.

French with English translations, no recipes.

Vivendier, translated Terence Scully, 1997? Prospect Books.

I have no information on this volume.

I'd certainly suggest a person new to Renaissance cooking start with Heiatt and then go on to Forme of Curye and the Two Fifteenth Century Cookbooks; start with Redon and go on to Le Menagier and Taillevent; start with Santich's The Original Mediterranean Cuisine and go on to Platina and Epulario.

Mistress Elaina de Sinistre

Tertiary Sources (redactions and history books):

Art of Cookery in The Middle Ages, Terence Scully, Boydell & Brewer, 1995.

Very thorough book on the Doctrine of Humors and its effect on the Medieval diet, as well as discussion of table manners, etc. A wonderful book!

The Art of Dining, Sara Paston-Williams.

Based on research from England's National Trust, this book documents cooking and eating from the late Medieval period to the early 20th Century.

The British Museum Cookbook: 4,000 Years of International Cuisine, Michelle Berriedale-Johnson, Abbeville Press, 1992.

An interesting collection of recipes based on the cuisine of various time periods, including Anglo-Saxon Britain, Medieval Europe, and Renaissance Italy. Original sources for recipes are NOT given and, especially for Anglo-Saxon times, it's only a guess based on foods available. Not recommended for the novice cooking researcher.

Drizzle of Honey: Life and Recipes of Spain’s Secret Jews, David M. Gitlitz & Linda Kay, St. Martins Press, 1999.

Uses records and journal description of dishes to recreate Medieval Spanish Jewish dishes, excellent bibliography, but no original recipes.

Early French Cookery, Terence & D. Eleanor Scully, University of Michigan Press, 1995.

Well-respected volume on French Medieval cooking, with original recipes and good redactions. Also contains suggestions for presenting a feast.

Elinor Fettiplace’s Receipt Book, Hilary Spurling, 1986, Viking.

Wonderful book on Elizabethan country house cooking through the year. Contains original recipes from a 1604 manuscript, good redactions, and a thorough explanation of country cooking.

English Bread and Yeast Cookery, Elizabeth David, 1977, Viking Press.

THE bible for British bread documentation. Contains great drawings of equipment and techniques, albiet mostly after our period of study.

Fast and Feast, Bridget Ann Henisch, 1976, Pennsylvania State University Press.

A great book on the history of Medieval English feasts. Contains chapters on feasts preparation, set-up of the kitchen, cooking methods and menus, setting the table, and feast entertainment. Great notes, index, citations!

Food and Drink in Medieval Poland, Maria Dembinska, 1999, University of Pennsylvania Press.

This is the only source currently for Medieval Polish cooking. Although this book does not contain actual period recipes, it has Polish recipes based on the author’s knowledge of the traditional cuisine and Le Viandier. Extensive text, notes, and index.

Food and Feast in Medieval England. P.W. Hammond. Sutton Pub., 1993.

Foods and table manners in England, 1250-1550. Good illustrations of period eating implements.

Food in Russian History and Culture. Musya Glants and Joyce Toomre, eds. Indiana University Press, 1997.

Original essays on aspects of Russian food in history; most useful period essay is on foods mentioned in the 12th Century Primary Chronicle of the Rus’.

Great Cooks and Their Recipes, Anne Willan.

Written by the noted food author and owner of the LaVarenne cooking school, this book has chapters on Martino, Scappi, LaVarenne, May, Taillevant.

The Handbook of Anglo-Saxon Food Processing and Consumption, Ann Hagen, 1992.

A study of food & beverages consumed in Anglo-Saxon England from the 5th Century to 1100. Synthesizes information from period manuscripts and archeological excavation. Appendices on fasting and feasting; extensive bibliography; additional information on sources for further study.

The Leeds Symposium on Food History Series, C. Anne Wilson, 1986-1994, Brotherton Library, University of Leeds, England.

Phenomenal collection of research papers from a food symposium, including Banqueting Stuffe, The Appetite and The Eye, Waste Not Want Not, and Food For The Community.

The Medieval Cookbook, Maggie Black, 1992, Thames & Hudson.

Chapters on Medieval food based on Chaucer, The Goodman of Paris, and Richard II, plus info on Christmas feasts and herbal remedies. Original recipes and decent redactions, based on several primary sources (listed in bibliography).

The Medieval Kitchen, Odile Redon, et. al., 1998, University of Chicago Press.

EXCELLENT!! Lists sources for French and Italian recipes and has very good redactions. The introductory material contains a lot of history on the sources, good artwork, decent index. This is very good for beginners and is highly recommended.

An Ordinance of Pottage, Constance Hieatt, 1988, Prospect Books.

Exceptional book for a beginner. Originals and redactions of recipes from the 15th Century Beinecke manuscript. Thorough glossary and index.

The Original Mediterranean Cuisine, Barbara Santich, 1995, Chicago Review Press.

Great book on Spanish, Italian, and French Medieval cuisine. Contains the original recipes, translations of the recipes, and good modern redactions. Well-written text on the cuisines, and a thorough list of sources and further reading.

Savoring the Past, Barbara Ketcham Wheaton, 1983, Touchstone.

A general history of French cuisine, much of it past our period of study.

A Sip Through Time, Cindy Renfrow, 1997.

Contains tons of great period recipes for alcohol, although some before and after our period of study.

Take A Buttock of Beefe, Verity Isitt, 1987, Ashford Press.

Gorgeous photographs of period paintings and other artwork. Hideous, unsubstantiated redactions. Contains an index of recipes, but a very poor introduction.

A Taste of Ancient Rome. Ilaria Gozzini Giacosa. University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Redactions of original recipes (also given) from several Roman sources, including Apicius. Good information on Roman foods & banquets; glossary, bibliography, weights & measures, biographies of Roman food writers. Two original garum recipes! Recommended.

A Taste of History, Maggie Black, et. al., 1993, English Heritage.

A general history of English cuisine.


SCA Sources of Interest:

The Best of A Watched Pot (compilation of a quarterly publication, Guild of the Black Kettle, An Tir), 1988, Alfarhaugr Publishing Society.

Nice SCAdian articles on feasts, tourneys, foods, beverages, and books.

A Boke of Gode Cookery,

This on-line book, maintained by a laurel, contains many "Medievaloid" dishes, but also has a variety of good redactions as well as artwork, articles, and a discussion group on Medieval food and feast preparation. A very user-friendly site.

The Medieval/Renaissance Food Homepage,

The Florilegium,

A treasure trove of articles, menus, links to other webpages, postings of primary sources, and Stefan’s Florilegium, which has a compilation of SCA-Cooks list discussions on beverages, feasts, food, books, breads, sweets, plants, herbs, and spices.

A Miscelleny, Cariadoc and Elizabeth, 1996 (first edition, 1988). It’s also available online at: (

An excellent resource for SCAdian cooks and non-cooks alike. Now in its 7th edition, this quadruple-threat's collection of redactions and articles on Medieval and SCAdian practices is fascinating.

Take a Thousand Eggs or More, Vols. I & II, Cindy Renfrow, 1991. (new edition in 1998)

This exceptional collection contains 15th Century recipes carefully cited, by a laurel, from the Harleian, Ashmole, Laud, and Douce manuscripts. Features very helpful artwork, glossaries of terms and phrases, a list of herb suppliers, a thorough bibliography and index, sample menus, a table of contents, and a redacting guide. Great for beginners!

Traveling Dysshes, Siobhan Medhbh O’Roarke, 1995.

Written by a SCAdian, this collection of easy-to-cook redactions is geared toward food you can bring to wars, potlucks, and lunches. Includes lists of New and Old World foods, suggests non-cooked and easy-to-buy foods which are appropriate for a Medieval sideboard, and discusses the difficulties of outdoor cooking. Also has the original recipes, a good bibliography, and a list of sources for the ingredients and spices. HOWEVER, there are numerous typographical errors throughout the book and the redactions are rather sloppy - the cameline sauce doesn't contain any cinnamon!

Booksellers Who Carry Many of the Books Mentioned:

Acanthus Books


Food Heritage Press

Green Duck Books & Designs

Poison Pen Press

Potboiler Press

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©2000 Chris P. Adler (Revised 3/20/00 with the addition of some sources by Mistress Mathilde de Pyrenees, and again on 1/10/2001)

Chris P. Adler